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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

21.05.2019Potential breakthrough in understanding tumor dormancy

Scientists may have uncovered a primary method through which cancer cells exist undetected in an organism and received more than $1 million to investigate the potential for novel therapeutics that target and destroy cells in a specific state of tumor dormancy.

21.05.2019Geneticists continue to unravel how genes impact drug use and addiction

Research is revealing new insights into how genes impact drug use and addiction through a novel study of susceptibility to the effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in fruit flies.

21.05.2019Children with cancer wait an average of 6.5 years longer than adults to access new drugs

An analysis of 117 cancer drugs approved by the US FDA over a 20-year period finds the drugs took a median of 6.5 years to go from the first clinical trial in adults to the first trial in children.

21.05.2019Air pollution linked to childhood anxiety

A new study looks at the correlation between exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and childhood anxiety, by looking at the altered neurochemistry in pre-adolescents.

21.05.2019Dawn-to-sunset fasting suggests potential new treatment for obesity-related conditions

Fasting from dawn to sunset for 30 days increased levels of proteins that play a crucial role in improving insulin resistance and protecting against the risks from a high-fat, high-sugar diet, according to researchers.

21.05.2019Insulin under the influence of light

By understanding how the brain links the effects of insulin to light, researchers are deciphering how insulin sensitivity fluctuates according to circadian cycles. At the heart of their discovery are neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, a part of the brain that masters this balance. These results should also encourage diabetic patients to consider the best time to take insulin to properly control its effect and limit the risk of hypoglycemia.

21.05.2019How molecular escorts help prevent cancer

The anti-tumor protein p53 can decide on the life or death of a cell: If it detects damage in the cell's genome, the protein pushes the cell to suicide. New research shows that this inborn cancer prevention only works when special proteins, known as chaperones, allow it to take place.

21.05.2019After GWAS studies, how to narrow the search for genes?

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often turn up a long list of genes that MIGHT help cause the trait of interest. Many algorithms can help scientists prioritize which genes to pursue further, but which one to choose? Borrowing from machine learning, and singling out one chromosome at a time, a new tool called Benchmarker helps scientists evaluate existing algorithms to guide their search for relevant genes.

21.05.2019Cancer: Using 3D to test personalized treatments in five days

Researchers have devised a cell co-culture platform that reproduces a patient's tumor structure in 3D. The scientists can use it to test several drugs or their combinations at different stages of the tumor's development. They now need only five days to identify which treatment will be most effective for a particular case, and the combination can then be translated for clinical practice.

21.05.2019Why lack of sleep is bad for your heart

People who sleep fewer than 7 hours per night have lower levels of gene-regulating molecules, or microRNAs, which help dampen down inflammation in cells and support vascular health.

21.05.2019Toward zero hunger: More food or a smarter food system?

When thinking about ways to end global hunger, many scholars focus too narrowly on increasing crop yields while overlooking other critical aspects of the food system.

21.05.2019Inhibition of protein phosphorylation promotes optic nerve regeneration after injury

Research results suggest that the inhibition of phosphorylation of microtubule-binding protein CRMP2 could be a novel approach to the development of treatments for optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma and traumatic injury.

21.05.2019CBD clinical trial results on seizure frequency in dogs 'encouraging'

Scientists have found in a small study that 89 percent of dogs who received CBD in the clinical trial had a reduction in the frequency of seizures. Nine dogs were treated with CBD, while seven in a control group were treated with a placebo.

21.05.2019Children who walk to school less likely to be overweight or obese

Children who regularly walk or cycle to school are less likely to be overweight or obese than those who travel by car or public transport.

21.05.2019What's the right amount of 'zapping' in epilepsy laser surgery?

A multicenter trial of minimally invasive laser surgery to treat epileptic seizures reveals approaches for better seizure control with fewer side effects.

21.05.2019A better understanding of the von Willebrand Factor's A2 domain

A team of researchers is working to characterize the mysterious protein known as the Von Willebrand Factor (vWF). In a recent article, they advance experimental data for the shear-induced extensional response of vWF, using a microfluidic device and fluorescence microscopy.

21.05.2019Scientists use molecular tethers, chemical 'light sabers' for tissue engineering

Researchers have unveiled a new strategy to keep proteins intact and functional in synthetic biomaterials for tissue engineering. Their approach modifies proteins at a specific point so that they can be chemically tethered to the scaffold using light. Since the tether can also be cut by laser light, this method can create evolving patterns of signal proteins throughout a biomaterial scaffold to grow tissues made up of different types of cells.

21.05.2019Road to cell death mapped in the Alzheimer's brain

Scientists have identified a new mechanism that accelerates aging in the brain and gives rise to the most devastating biological features of Alzheimer's disease. The findings also unify three long-standing theories behind the disease's origins into one cohesive narrative that explains how healthy cells become sick and gives scientists new avenues for screening compounds designed to slow or stop disease progression, something existing medications cannot do.

21.05.2019Dead cells disrupt how immune cells respond to wounds and patrol for infection

Immune cells prioritize the clearance of dead cells overriding their normal migration to sites of injury. A research paves the way for new therapies to manipulate how white blood cells get to and are kept at sites of injuries during healing.

21.05.2019Soy foods linked to fewer fractures in younger breast cancer survivors

A new study has found that diets high in soy foods are associated with a decreased risk of osteoporotic bone fractures in pre-menopausal breast cancer survivors.

21.05.2019Head injury effects halted by xenon gas, finds first ever life-long study in mice

Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), xenon prevented early death, improved long-term cognition, and protected brain tissue in mice in a new study.

21.05.2019Anxiety might be alleviated by regulating gut bacteria

People who experience anxiety symptoms might be helped by taking steps to regulate the microorganisms in their gut using probiotic and non-probiotic food and supplements, suggests a review of studies.

21.05.2019Weight gain and loss may worsen dementia risk in older people

Older people who experience significant weight gain or weight loss could be raising their risk of developing dementia, suggests a study from Korea.

20.05.2019Shedding light on cancer metabolism in real-time with bioluminescence

Cancerous tumors can be made to bioluminesce, like fireflies, according to the level of their glucose uptake, giving rise to a technique for quantifying metabolite absorption. The firefly imaging technique for sugar can be translated from cancer to many other metabolic diseases.

20.05.2019Certain placental stem cells can regenerate heart after heart attack

Researchers have identified a new stem cell type that can significantly improve cardiac function.

20.05.2019Rocky mountain spotted fever risks examined

In Mexicali, Mexico, an uncontrolled epidemic of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, one of the deadliest tickborne diseases in the Americas, has affected more than 1,000 people since 2008.

20.05.2019Scientists succeed in testing potential brain-based method to diagnose autism

Scientists have taken the first step in developing an objective, brain-based test to diagnose autism.

20.05.2019Protein that hinders advancement of prostate cancer identified

Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have discovered that blocking a specific protein, may be a promising strategy to prevent the spread of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

20.05.2019Thinking outside the box: 'Seeing' clearer and deeper into live organs

Scientists using a unique approach have developed a new biomedical imaging contrast agent. They say the breakthrough overcomes a major challenge to 'seeing' deeper into live tissue, and opens the way for significant improvements in optical imaging technology.

20.05.2019Benralizumab not effective reducing exacerbations in moderate to very severe COPD

New research shows that the asthma drug benralizumab failed to decrease annual COPD exacerbation rates for patients with moderate to very severe COPD, a history of frequent moderate and/or severe exacerbations, and eosinophilic inflammation.

20.05.2019People with benign skin condition willing to trade time, money to cure disorder

People with benign hyperpigmentation (the darkening or increase in the natural color of the skin), are willing to pay (WTP) nearly 14 percent of their monthly income and approximately 90 minutes a day to cure their condition.

20.05.2019Eliminating extended work shifts improves sleep duration for senior resident physicians

A new study comparing the work hours and sleep obtained by pediatric resident physicians working extended shifts with those whose scheduled shift lengths were limited to no more than 16 consecutive hours found that hours of sleep per week increased under a modified schedule.

20.05.2019Nearly 1 in 5 parents say their child never wears a helmet while riding a bike

Despite evidence that helmets are critical to preventing head injuries, not all children wear them while biking, skateboarding and riding scooters, a new national poll finds.

20.05.2019Dietary cholesterol or egg consumption do not increase the risk of stroke, Finnish study finds

A new study Finland shows that a moderately high intake of dietary cholesterol or consumption of up to one egg per day is not associated with an elevated risk of stroke. Furthermore, no association was found in carriers of the APOE4 phenotype, which affects cholesterol metabolism and is remarkably common among the Finnish population.

20.05.2019Virulence factor of the influenza A virus mapped in real-time

Researchers have used high-speed microscopy to investigate native structure and conformational dynamics of hemagglutinin in influenza A.

20.05.2019Stroke, cancer and heart disease: Key acid-activated protein channel

Researchers have discovered a long-sought protein, the proton-activated chloride channel (PAC), that is activated in acidic environments and could protect against the tissue-damaging effects of stroke, heart attack, cancer and inflammation. The researchers believe the discovery of this protein could provide a new drug target for potential therapies for stroke and other health issues.

20.05.2019The healing power of a smile: A link between oral care and substance abuse recovery

A new study links the benefits of comprehensive oral care to the physical and emotional recovery of patients seeking treatment for substance use disorder.

20.05.2019Teens with ADHD get more traffic violations for risky driving, have higher crash risk

Teen drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are significantly more likely to crash, be issued traffic and moving violations, and engage in risky driving behaviors than their peers without ADHD.

20.05.2019Economists find net benefit in soda tax

A team of economists has concluded that soda taxes serve as a 'net good,' an assessment based on an analysis of health benefits and consumer behavior.

20.05.2019New recommendations for stroke systems of care to improve patient outcomes

To translate advances in scientific knowledge and innovations in stroke care into improvements in patient outcomes, comprehensive stroke systems of care must be in place to facilitate optimal stroke care delivery. New recommendations support policies that standardize the delivery of stroke care, lower barriers to emergency care for stroke, ensure stroke patients receive care at appropriate hospitals in a timely manner and improve access to secondary prevention and rehabilitation and recovery resources after stroke.

19.05.2019Walking and strength training may decrease the risk of dying from liver disease

Physical activity, including walking and muscle-strengthening activities, were associated with significantly reduced risk of cirrhosis-related death, according to new research. Chronic liver disease is increasing, partly due to the obesity epidemic, and currently there are no guidelines for the optimal type of exercise for the prevention of cirrhosis-related mortality.

19.05.2019Big data reveals hidden subtypes of sepsis

Much like cancer, sepsis isn't simply one condition, but rather many conditions with varying clinical characteristics that could benefit from different treatments, according to the results of a study involving more than 100,000 patients. These findings could explain why several recent clinical trials of treatments for sepsis, the number one killer of hospitalized patients, have failed.

19.05.2019Sedation and controlled paralysis do not improve survival of ICU patients with ARDS

Reversibly paralyzing and heavily sedating hospitalized patients with severe breathing problems do not improve outcomes in most cases, according to a clinical trial conducted at dozens of North American hospitals. The trial -- which was stopped early due to futility -- settles a long-standing debate in the critical care medicine community.

19.05.2019Growth in life expectancy in Australia slows

After 20 years of rapid increases in life expectancy at birth, the rate of growth in Australia is now falling behind most other high-income nations, meaning better control of health risk factors such as obesity will be needed if further life expectancy increases are to be achieved, research shows.

19.05.2019Researchers document impact of coffee on bowels

Coffee drinkers know that coffee helps keep the bowels moving, but researchers in Texas are trying to find out exactly why this is true, and it doesn't seem to be about the caffeine, according to a new study. Researchers, feeding rats coffee and also mixing it with gut bacteria in petri dishes, found that coffee suppressed bacteria and increased muscle motility, regardless of caffeine content.

18.05.2019'Stepped' treatment reduces drinking in patients with HIV

People with HIV who drink too much were more likely to reduce drinking after undergoing an approach to care known as integrated stepped alcohol treatment, according to a new study. The finding supports greater use of this treatment model in HIV clinics to improve outcomes for patients with both HIV and drinking problems, the researchers said.

18.05.2019Button batteries can rapidly damage stomach lining before symptoms appear

Damage to the lining of the stomach can occur quickly when children swallow button batteries; therefore, clinicians should consider prompt endoscopic removal, even when the child is symptom free and the battery has passed safely through the narrow esophagus, according to new research. The recommendations represent a change from current practice of watching and waiting.

17.05.2019Electric field-based dressing helps heal wound infections

Researchers have found a way to charge up the fight against bacterial infections using electricity. Scientists have developed a dressing that uses an electric field to disrupt biofilm infection in wounds.

17.05.2019Clinical trial improves treatment of genetic rickets

A new study shows a drug to alleviate symptoms of a rare musculoskeletal condition is significantly more effective than conventional therapies.

17.05.2019How a member of a family of light-sensitive proteins adjusts skin color

Researchers have found that opsin 3 -- a protein closely related to rhodopsin, the protein that enables low-light vision -- has a role in adjusting the amount of pigment produced in human skin, a determinant of skin color.

17.05.2019A new approach to targeting cancer cells

A research team has come up with a new approach to targeting cancer cells that circumvents a challenge faced by currently available cancer drugs.

17.05.2019Wearable cooling and heating patch could serve as personal thermostat and save energy

Engineers have developed a wearable patch that could provide personalized cooling and heating at home, work, or on the go. The soft, stretchy patch cools or warms a user's skin to a comfortable temperature and keeps it there as the ambient temperature changes. It is powered by a flexible, stretchable battery pack and can be embedded in clothing. Researchers say wearing it could help save energy on air conditioning and heating.

17.05.2019Dangerous pathogens use this sophisticated machinery to infect hosts

A detailed new model of a bacterial secretion system provides directions for developing precisely targeted antibiotics.

17.05.2019Scientists capture first-ever video of body's safety test for T-cells

For the first time, immunologists have captured on video what happens when T-cells undergo a type of assassin-training program before they get unleashed in the body. A new imaging technique that allowed for the videos holds promise for the fight against autoimmune disorders such as Type 1 diabetes.

17.05.2019Metals influence C-peptide hormone related to insulin

Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work. The research is part of a new field of 'metalloendocrinology' that takes a detailed look at the role of metals in biological processes in the body.

17.05.2019Researchers unravel mechanisms that control cell size

A multidisciplinary team has provided new insight into underlying mechanisms controlling the precise size of cells. The researchers found that 'the adder,' a function that guides cells to grow by a fixed size from birth to division, is controlled by specific proteins that accumulate to a threshold.

17.05.2019Early dengue virus infection could 'defuse' zika virus

The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America has affected over 60 million people up to now. The infection can have potentially fatal consequences for pregnant women and their unborn children: many children have subsequently been born with malformations of the head (microcephaly). A particularly high incidence of these Zika-associated malformations exists in northeastern Brazil. Scientists tried to find out the reasons for this regional cluster and discovered a surprising protective factor.

17.05.2019Toy transformers and real-life whales inspire biohybrid robot

Researchers create a remote-controlled soft robot that can transform itself to conduct targeted drug delivery against cancer cells.

17.05.2019Current vaccination policies may not be enough to prevent measles resurgence

Current vaccination policies may not be sufficient to achieve and maintain measles elimination and prevent future resurgence in Australia, Ireland, Italy, the UK and the US, according to a new study.

17.05.2019Being sick in the morning can be different from being sick at night

Researchers discuss how time of day affects the severity of afflictions ranging from allergies to heart attacks.

 
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