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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

06.12.2019Dramatic health benefits following air pollution reduction

Reductions in air pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, according to new findings.

06.12.2019Electronic map reveals 'rules of the road' in superconductor

Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, physicists have drawn a road map that reveals the quantum ''rules of the road'' that electrons must follow in the enigmatic superconductor.

06.12.2019Study debunks notion that C-section would increase risk of obesity in the child

Women who have C-sections are no more likely to have children who develop obesity than women who give birth naturally, according to a large study. The findings contradict several smaller studies that did find an association between C-section deliveries and offspring obesity but did not consider the numerous maternal and prenatal factors that the researchers did in this study.

06.12.2019New ultra-miniaturized scope less invasive, produces higher quality images

Johns Hopkins engineers have created a new lens-free ultra-miniaturized endoscope, the size of a few human hairs in width, that is less bulky and can produce higher quality images.

06.12.2019Nanocontainer ships titan-size gene therapies and drugs into cells

Scientists report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size -- even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR.

06.12.2019Current treatment for fungal meningitis is fueling drug resistance

A common first-line treatment approach for cryptococcal meningitis in low-income countries is being compromised by the emergence of drug resistance, new research warns. The findings highlight the need to develop new drugs and treatment regimens for the lethal brain infection, which kills around 180,000 people each year.

06.12.2019Link between vitamin A and brain response in Monarch butterflies

Biologists are making strides in understanding biological clock function in several model organisms and translating these studies into broader implications for human health.

06.12.2019Empowering mucosal healing with an engineered probiotic

Researchers developed a living material approach that uses a strain of genetically engineered E.coli Nissle bacteria as a locally acting probiotic. The engineered bacteria produce a network of nanofibers that directly binds to mucus to fill inflamed areas like a patch, shielding them from gut microbes and environmental factors. This probiotic-based therapeutic strategy protected mice against the effects of colitis induced by a chemical agent and promoted mucosal healing.

06.12.2019Scientists use crabs to validate popular method to identify unknown human brain neurons

A crab's nervous system could help scientists learn what causes single neurons in the human brain to become 'out of whack,' which can contribute to the development of neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Knowing exactly how a single neuron operates among the billions housed in the human brain could one day help scientists design innovative ways to prevent and treat these diseases, such as targeted therapies.

06.12.2019Infant morbidity decreases with incentive-based prenatal tobacco interventions

A new study reveals a significant reduction in NICU (up to 55%) and preterm births due to incentive-based programs implemented to help low-income pregnant women stop smoking cigarettes. Colorado saved over 4 million dollars in healthcare costs by providing these programs and has an opportunity to save 16 million. The issue is critical because smoking in the third trimester of pregnancy is three to four times higher among women who live in poverty.

06.12.2019'Junk DNA' affects inherited cancer risk

A person's risk of developing cancer is affected by genetic variations in regions of DNA that don't code for proteins, previously dismissed as 'junk DNA', according to new research. This new study shows that inherited cancer risk is not only affected by mutations in key cancer genes - known as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes - but that variations in the DNA that controls the expression of these genes can also drive the disease.

06.12.2019Tick box questionnaire could significantly improve esophageal cancer survival rates

A simple health questionnaire could be a highly effective tool to pre-screen people for early signs of esophageal cancer, enabling much earlier diagnosis and treatment, finds a new study.

06.12.2019Long-term study finds faster breast cancer radiation treatment as effective as long course

Approximately half of the patients were randomly assigned whole breast radiation, delivered once per day over 3 to 5 weeks. The other half received external beam APBI which was given twice a day over 5 to 8 days. The study was long-term, with a median followup of 8.6 years.

06.12.2019BPA levels in humans dramatically underestimated

Researchers have developed a more accurate method of measuring bisphenol A (BPA) levels in humans and found that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical is far higher than previously assumed. The study provides the first evidence that the measurements relied upon by regulatory agencies, including the US Food and Drug Administration, are flawed, underestimating exposure levels by as much as 44 times.

06.12.2019Quarter of Californian adults live in a household with a gun, poll indicates

One in four adults in California lives in a household with a gun, including around 1 in 7 (14%) who personally own a firearm, suggest the results of a survey.

05.12.2019Study seeks to answer whether effects of 'abortion pill' can be reversed

Women who initiate medical abortion but opt to stop in the middle of treatment may be at risk for serious blood loss, a study finds. Researchers found this is true even for women who use an experimental treatment that claims to 'reverse' the effects of the abortion pill. The study provides important insights into the safety of using high doses of progesterone during early pregnancy to try to stop a medical abortion.

05.12.2019Open source EEG visualization tool

Researchers have developed a free open source computer program that can be used to create visual and quantitative representations of brain electrical activity in laboratory animals in hopes of developing countermeasures for opioid use disorder.

05.12.2019Cellphone distraction linked to increase in head injuries

Head and neck injuries incurred while driving or walking with a cellphone are on the rise -- and correlates with the launch of the iPhone in 2007 and release of Pokémon Go in 2016, a new study found.

05.12.2019Behavioral interventions may be as effective at reducing food intake as anorectic drugs

Simulations predict that behavioral interventions such as imposing strict no-food restrictions after meals can be as effective as strong anorectic drugs in reducing food intake in rodents, according to a study.

05.12.2019Newly engineered peptide shows potential as long-acting anti-HIV drug

A newly engineered peptide called IBP-CP24 has the potential to be further developed as a long-acting anti-HIV drug that can be used alone or in combination with a broad neutralizing antibody for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, according to a new study.

05.12.2019Nervous system doesn't merely detect Salmonella, it defends the body against it

Study in mice shows the nervous system not only detects the presence of Salmonella in the gut but actively stops the organism from infecting the body.

05.12.2019Root of childhood kidney cancer discovered

A fundamental change in our understanding of the childhood kidney cancer Wilms' tumor is on the horizon, after the discovery of its earliest genetic root by scientists. By comparing genome sequences from normal kidney tissue and tumors, the team identified patches of normal-looking kidney tissue that in fact carried DNA changes that cause Wilms' tumor.

05.12.2019Clinical study finds eating within 10-hour window may help stave off diabetes, heart disease

Researchers have found that a 10-hour time-restricted eating intervention, when combined with traditional medications, resulted in weight loss, reduced abdominal fat, lower blood pressure and cholesterol for participants. The pilot study could lead to a new treatment option for metabolic syndrome patients who are at risk for developing life-altering and costly medical conditions such as diabetes.

05.12.2019Three types of cells help the brain tell day from night

Researchers report the discovery of three cell types in the eye that detect light and align the brain's circadian rhythm to our ambient light. The study marks the first direct assessment in humans of light responses from these cells, called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) -- and the implications for health are substantial.

05.12.2019Taming chronic inflammation may reduce illness, save lives

Scientists are recommending early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of severe chronic inflammation to reduce the risk of chronic disease and death worldwide.

05.12.2019Technique shows how individual cancer cells react to drugs

sci-Plex, a new cell-response screening method, pools genetically different cells and shows what happens to individual cells when the sample is treated, such as with cancer drugs. The technology collects information on changes in genetic expression in each labeled cell, providing data useful in exploring mechanisms triggered by drugs or other agents.

05.12.2019Immune system can be coaxed into selecting key antibodies to fight HIV

Researchers have cleared a major obstacle in the development of an HIV vaccine, proving in animal models that effective, yet short-lasting antibodies can be coaxed into multiplying as a fighting force against the virus.

05.12.2019Next generation of CAR-T cells possible

A new approach to programing cancer-fighting immune cells called CAR-T cells can prolong their activity and increase their effectiveness against human cancer cells grown in the laboratory and in mice, according to a new study.

05.12.2019First long-term estimates suggest link between cholesterol levels and risk of heart disease and stroke

The observational and modelling study which used individual-level data from almost 400,000 people extends existing research because it suggests that increasing levels of non-HDL cholesterol may predict long-term cardiovascular risk by the age of 75 years. Past risk estimates of this kind are based on 10-year follow-up data.

05.12.2019Scientists reliably predict people's age by measuring proteins in blood

Protein levels in people's blood can predict their age, a study has found. The study also found that aging isn't a smoothly continuous process.

05.12.2019What does DNA's repair shop look like? New research identifies the tools

A team of scientists has identified how damaged DNA molecules are repaired inside the human genome, a discovery that offers new insights into how the body works to ensure its health and how it responds to diseases that stem from impaired DNA.

05.12.2019Evolutionary connection between pregnancy and cancer metastasis

Pregnancy might hold the key to understanding how cancer metastasizes in various mammals -- including humans, according to researchers.

05.12.2019Imaging of conjunctival goblet cells helps diagnosis of dry eyes

Researchers have developed a biometric imaging of conjunctival goblet cells with high definition.

05.12.2019Using lungs from increased-risk donors expands donor pool, maintains current survival rates

Researchers have found that using lungs from donors who are considered high risk for certain infectious diseases compared to standard risk donors results in similar one-year survival for recipients. In addition, researchers saw no difference in rejection or graft (donor lung) survival after one year in patients receiving lungs from increased-risk donors.

05.12.2019Anti-hepatitis medicine surprises

A new effective treatment of hepatitis C not only combats the virus, but is also effective against potentially fatal complications such as reduced liver functioning and cirrhosis.

05.12.2019Dangerous skin tumor now has treatment guidelines

A new study reports the first guidelines for treating sebaceous carcinoma, a cancer of the oil glands. If not removed and treated promptly, it can spread to other organs and cause grave harm to patients, including death. But up until now there was no commonly agreed method to treat it.

05.12.2019Machine learning helps scientists measure important inflammation process

Inflammation is a hallmark of many health conditions, but quantifying how the underlying biology of inflammation contributes to specific diseases has been difficult. For the first time, researchers now report the development of a new technology to identify white blood cells called neutrophils that are primed to eject inflammatory DNA into the circulation via a process called NETosis.

05.12.2019Improving blood vessel health in brain may help combat Alzheimer's

Researchers have found that very slow spontaneous blood vessel pulsations drive the clearance of substances from the brain, indicating that targeting and improving this process may help to prevent or treat amyloid-beta accumulation.

05.12.2019Once-a-month oral contraceptive pill in development

Investigators have designed a drug-delivery vehicle that consists of six arms joined by an elastic-coated core. The arms were loaded with the oral contraceptive drug levonorgestrel and folded up into a capsule that can be swallowed. Once in the stomach, the arms unfold and have a span that is larger than the opening of the human pylorus, helping the system stay in the stomach where it can release the drug over time.

05.12.2019Being active reduces risk of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK , yet we still don't know all of its causes. The largest ever study to use genetics as a measurement for physical activity to look at its effect on prostate cancer, reveals that being more active reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Over 140,000 men were included in the study, of which, 80,000 had prostate cancer.

05.12.2019Possible early test for fetal heart health

Changes in heart rate, due to low oxygen conditions, experienced by the fetus during pregnancy, could be used to predict the future heart health of babies, shows new research.

04.12.2019Host cell proteases can process viral capsid proteins

It has long been suggested that a cell protease could take part in enterovirus infection. However, the identity of such proteases have remained unknown.

04.12.2019Typhoid vaccine over 81% effective in tackling disease in Nepal

A large field study of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) in Nepal has shown a single dose to be safe and effective in reducing typhoid in children aged 9 months to <16 years in an endemic setting.

04.12.2019New tool to predict the global spread of dengue

Researchers have developed a new tool to predict the global spread of human infectious diseases, like dengue, and track them to their source.

04.12.2019Warmer temperatures will increase arsenic levels in rice

Researchers have found that warmer temperatures, at levels expected under most climate change projections, can lead to higher concentrations of arsenic in rice grains.

04.12.2019Cellular repair response to treadmill test can predict cardiac outcomes

The information gained from the changes in CPC counts during exercise may be more useful to cardiologists in risk stratifying these patients than the treadmill exercise test itself, the researchers say.

04.12.2019A week in the dark rewires brain cell networks and changes hearing in adult mice

New research reveals how a week in the dark rewires brain cell networks and changes hearing sensitivity in adult mice long after the optimal window for auditory learning has passed. With further study, cross-modal learning -- the manipulation of one sense to induce change in another sense -- could be used to help people with disabilities. For example, temporary sight deprivation might be used to help deaf and hearing-impaired people adapt to cochlear implants and hearing aids.

04.12.2019Probiotic may help treat colic in infants

Probiotics -- or 'good bacteria' -- have been used to treat infant colic with varying success. In a new trial, investigators have shown that drops containing a particular probiotic strain (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12) reduced the duration of daily crying by more than 50% in 80% of the 40 infants who received the probiotic once daily for 28 days, with beneficial effects on sleep duration and on stool frequency and consistency.

04.12.2019Molecular bodyguards against Parkinson's disease

Chaperone proteins in human cells dynamically interact with the protein alpha-Synuclein, which is strongly associated with Parkinson's disease. A disturbed relationship to these 'bodyguards' leads to cell damage and the formation of Lewy bodies typical for Parkinson's disease.

04.12.2019Some stress in early life extends lifespan, research in roundworms shows

Some stress at a young age could actually lead to a longer life, new research in roundworms shows.

04.12.2019Asia-wide genome mapping project reveals insights into Asian ancestry and genetic diversity

After a global genetic comparison, a team of international scientists has discovered that Asia has at least 10 ancestral lineages, whereas northern Europe has a single ancestral lineage.

04.12.2019Bullying others increases the risk of developing mental health problems and vice versa

A new study suggests there is a two-way relationship between bullying perpetration and mental health problems among U.S. youth. Researchers report that bullying perpetration increased the risk of developing internalizing problems, and having internalizing problems increased the probability of bullying others. While previous research has focused on the causes and consequences of bullying victimization, this is the first study to comprehensively explore the time sequence between bullying perpetration and mental health problems.

04.12.2019Scientists create 'epigenetic couch potato' mouse

A study in mice shows for the first time that epigenetics -- the molecular mechanisms that determine which genes are turned on or off -- plays a key role in determining an individual's innate drive to exercise.

04.12.2019Drug decreases gut leakiness associated with ulcerative colitis

Biomedical scientists have found that a drug approved by the FDA to treat rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis can repair permeability defects in the gut's epithelium.

04.12.2019Chip-based optical sensor detects cancer biomarker in urine

For the first time, researchers have used a chip-based sensor with an integrated laser to detect very low levels of a cancer protein biomarker in a urine sample. The new technology is more sensitive than other designs and could lead to non-invasive and inexpensive ways to detect molecules that indicate the presence or progression of a disease.

04.12.2019Scientists push bioprinting capability forward

Scientists are reporting using bioprinting to print a tracheal tissue construct comprising of multiple different functional materials. They printed different designs of smooth muscle and cartilage regions in artificial tracheal substitutes showing similar mechanical properties to human tracheal tissue.

04.12.20193D model of human liver for better diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the most common chronic liver disorder in developed countries. Histological analysis of liver tissue is the only widely accepted test for diagnosing and distinguishing different stages of the disease. However, this technique provides only two-dimensional images of the liver tissue in low resolution and overlooks potentially important 3D structural changes. Researchers now generated 3D geometrical and functional models of human liver tissue for different disease stages. They reveal new critical tissue alterations, providing new insights into pathophysiology and contributing to high definition medical diagnosis.

04.12.2019Short-term radon test kits are not effective in measuring radon gas exposure

A new study finds the only reliable way to measure exposure to radon gas is with a long-term testing kit, 90 or more days. Researchers placed two test kits, a short term (five-day) and long term (90-day) in the same homes. Tests were conducted during summer and winter months. Findings showed the short-term kits were imprecise up to 99 percent of the time when compared to a long term test.

04.12.2019Medical marijuana cards often sought by existing heavy users

Young adults who seek enrollment in state medical marijuana programs are often those who already use heavily rather than those with mental or physical issues that could be addressed by the drug.

04.12.2019Manuka honey 'sandwich' could be key to fighting infections

Sandwiching nano-layers of manuka honey between layers of surgical mesh inhibits bacteria for up to three weeks as the honey is slowly released, new research shows.

 
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