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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

18.01.2019Enhanced NMR reveals chemical structures in a fraction of the time

Researchers have developed a way to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), a technique used to study the structure and composition of many kinds of molecules, including proteins linked to Alzheimer's and other diseases.

18.01.2019Specific cognitive deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

A multidisciplinary team of researchers has identified specific cognitive deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Their findings support the theory of accelerated aging after SCI, and have important implications for further research.

18.01.2019Air pollution increases ER visits for breathing problems

As levels of ozone and fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) rise, more patients end up in the ER with breathing problems, according to the largest US study of air pollution and respiratory emergency room visits of patients of all ages.

18.01.2019Placentas adapt when mothers have poor diets or low oxygen during pregnancy

Researchers have discovered the placenta regulates how much oxygen and nutrients it transports to babies during challenging pregnancies in the first study of its kind. The placenta is one of the least understood human organs and it is notoriously difficult to study. This new research focused on analyzing the placental mitochondria and it is hoped the new findings could lead to tests to determine whether a mother's placenta is functioning properly.

18.01.2019'Happiness' exercises can boost mood in those recovering from substance use disorder

Brief, text-based, self-administered exercises can significantly increase in-the-moment happiness for adults recovering from substance use disorders, report researchers.

18.01.2019Fighting deadly drug resistant bacteria in intestines with new antibiotic

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a potentially deadly infection in the large intestine most common in people who need to take antibiotics for a long period of time, particularly in Australia's ageing population. But when doses of a new antibiotic called Ramizol were given to hamsters infected with a lethal dose of the bacteria, a significant proportion of hamsters survived the infection.

18.01.2019Poor sleep and heart-related death

Elderly men who experience extended episodes of interrupted breathing while asleep have a high risk of heart problems. Research shows for the first time that poor blood oxygenation is a good indicator of the chance of heart-related death, which cannot be attributed to sleep apnoea alone.

18.01.2019Killer blows? Knockout study of pair of mouse MicroRNA provides cancer insight

Researchers used knockout mouse models created by gene editing to reveal that the miRNA miR-146b, like miR-146a, is involved in the development of cancers, with them having similar but not identical effects. The knockout mice should help in the fight against cancers involving miRNA dysregulation.

18.01.2019Short bouts of stairclimbing throughout the day can boost health

It just got harder to avoid exercise. A few minutes of stair climbing, at short intervals throughout the day, can improve cardiovascular health, according to new research.

18.01.2019Exposure to chemicals during pregnancy is not associated with an increase in blood pressure

Exposure to certain chemicals such as phthalates, parabens or Bisphenol A could be associated with a decrease in blood pressure during pregnancy.

18.01.2019Hand-knitted molecules

Molecules are usually formed in reaction vessels or laboratory flasks. An Empa research team has now succeeded in producing molecules between two microscopically small, movable gold tips -- in a sense as a 'hand-knitted' unique specimen. The properties of the molecules can be monitored in real time while they are being produced. The research results have just been published in Nature Communications.

18.01.2019New therapeutic avenue in the fight against chronic liver disease

A recent study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has introduced a novel targeted drug delivery system in the fight against cancer.

18.01.2019Potential biotech and health applications with new knowledge on bacteria and viruses

New research to better understand how bacteria and their viruses interact and evolve will enable future studies to exploit the use of bacteria and their viruses for potential biotechnology and health applications.

18.01.2019Home-based hypertension program produces 'striking' results

Pilot study finds that an innovative care-delivery program helped 81 percent of participants achieve blood pressure control in seven weeks.

18.01.2019Gene therapy promotes nerve regeneration

Researchers have shown that treatment using gene therapy leads to a faster recovery after nerve damage. By combining a surgical repair procedure with gene therapy, the survival of nerve cells and regeneration of nerve fibers over a long distance was stimulated. The discovery is an important step towards the development of a new treatment for people with nerve damage.

18.01.2019Frailty could make people more susceptible to dementia

New research suggests that frailty makes older adults more susceptible to Alzheimer's dementia, and moderates the effects of dementia-related brain changes on dementia symptoms. The findings suggest that frailty should be considered in clinical care and management of Alzheimer's dementia.

17.01.2019Salad, soda and socioeconomic status: Mapping a social determinant of health in Seattle

Seattle residents who live in waterfront neighborhoods tend to have healthier diets compared to those who live along Interstate-5 and Aurora Avenue, according to new research on social disparities. The study used local data to model food consumption patterns by city block. Weekly servings of salad and soda served as proxies for diet quality.

17.01.2019Bioethicists call for oversight of consumer 'neurotechnologies' with unproven benefits

The marketing of consumer 'neurotechnologies' can be enticing: apps that diagnose a mental state, and brain devices that improve cognition or 'read' one's emotional state. However, many of these increasingly popular products aren't fully supported by science and have little to no regulatory oversight, which poses potential health risks to the public. Two bioethicists suggest the creation of a working group that would further study, monitor, and provide guidance for this growing industry -- which is expected to top $3 billion by 2020.

17.01.2019Scientists create a renewable source of cancer-fighting T cells

A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells -- which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab -- into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.

17.01.2019Psychological distress is a risk factor for dementia

A new study suggests that vital exhaustion -- which can be perceived as an indicator of psychological distress -- is a risk factor for future risk of dementia.

17.01.2019Combination therapy treats leishmaniasis, HIV patients

Coinfection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been observed in at least 35 countries on four continents and requires special case management. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends AmBisome monotherapy for treatment. Now, researchers have showed that a combination therapy of AmBisome and miltefosine is more effective.

17.01.2019New findings reveal surprising role of the cerebellum in reward and social behaviors

A study in rodents found that the brain's cerebellum -- known to play a role in motor coordination -- also helps control the brain's reward circuitry. Researchers found a direct neural connection from the cerebellum to the ventral tegmental area (a brain area long known to be involved in reward processing and encoding). The findings shed light on the brain circuits critical to the affective and social dysfunction seen across multiple psychiatric disorders.

17.01.2019Gene therapy blocks peripheral nerve damage in mice

Scientists have developed a gene therapy that blocks axonal degeneration, preventing axon destruction in mice and suggesting a therapeutic strategy that could help prevent the loss of peripheral nerves in multiple conditions.

17.01.2019Wired for obesity

Researchers have discovered a set of genes that help to establish brain connections governing body weight.

17.01.2019Blocking hormone uptake burns more fat

A newly discovered regulatory mechanism helps the body control the rate of fat metabolism, according to a new study. The finding may lead to new drugs to help burn stored fat and reduce weight.

17.01.2019Scientists learn how common virus reactivates after transplantation

A new study challenges long-held theories of why a common virus -- cytomegalovirus, or CMV -- can reactivate and become a life-threatening infection in people with a compromised immune system, including blood cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

17.01.2019Brain cells that make pain unpleasant

If you step on a tack, neurons in your brain will register two things: that there's a piercing physical sensation in your foot, and that it's not pleasant. Now, a team of scientists has identified a bundle of brain cells in mice responsible for the latter -- that is, the negative emotions of pain.

17.01.2019Stress fracture? Your foot hitting pavement wasn't the main problem

It starts as a persistent and irritating pain in the foot or lower leg, then it gets more intense, maybe with swelling, and soon a runner knows she's being sidelined by one of the most common running injuries: a stress fracture. These tiny cracks in the bone can halt training for months or even end a sports season. A segment of the multibillion-dollar wearables industry aims to save potential victims from this fate, but an engineering professor found a major problem: the devices are measuring the wrong thing.

17.01.2019New hope for stem cell approach to treating diabetes

Researchers have tweaked the recipe for coaxing human stem cells into insulin-secreting beta cells and shown that the resulting cells are more responsive to fluctuating glucose levels in the blood.

17.01.2019Reinforcement learning expedites 'tuning' of robotic prosthetics

Researchers have developed an intelligent system for 'tuning' powered prosthetic knees, allowing patients to walk comfortably with the prosthetic device in minutes, rather than the hours necessary if the device is tuned by a trained clinical practitioner. The system is the first to rely solely on reinforcement learning to tune the robotic prosthesis.

17.01.2019Body-painting protects against bloodsucking insects

A study by researchers from Sweden and Hungary shows that white, painted stripes on the body protect skin from insect bites. It is the first time researchers have successfully shown that body-painting has this effect. Among indigenous peoples who wear body-paint, the markings thus provide a certain protection against insect-borne diseases.

17.01.2019Researchers race against extinction to uncover tree's cancer-fighting properties

As the population of a fir tree in China dwindles, researchers are racing to replicate its cancer-fighting molecules.

17.01.2019A new way to transfer energy between cells

Researchers have described a new method for the transmission of electrons between proteins that refutes the evidence from experiments until now. This process, involved in the generation of energy in both animal and plant cells, will permit better understanding of the behavior of proteins in the cells, as well as giving a deeper understanding of the energy dysfunctions that cause diseases.

17.01.2019Scientists search for new methods to cure neurodegenerative diseases

Most neurons in the human brain are generated from neural stem cells during embryonic development. After birth, a small reservoir of stem cells remains in the brain that keeps on producing new neurons throughout life. However, the question arises as to whether these new neurons really support brain function? And if so, can we improve brain capacity by increasing the number of neurons? A research group has now answered these questions.

17.01.2019Blister fluid could help diagnose burn severity

Severe burns can leave physical and psychological scars, especially in children. When a burn patient enters the clinic, doctors use factors such as the depth and size of the burn, as well as the time required for skin healing -- or re-epithelialization -- to determine the best course of treatment. Now, researchers have found another, possibly more accurate way to classify burn severity: analyzing proteins in blister fluid.

17.01.2019Cultivating 4D tissues: The self-curving cornea

Scientists have developed a biological system which lets cells form a desired shape by molding their surrounding material -- in the first instance creating a self-curving cornea. The astonishing video shows the cornea molding itself into a bowl-like structure over the course of 5 days.

17.01.2019The cytoskeleton of neurons has been found to be involved in Alzheimer's disease

A researcher has participated in a study describing what it is during the early stages of Alzheimer's that triggers the loss of dynamics and subsequent impairment of the dendritic spines, the compartments of the neurons responsible for receiving nerve impulses from other neurons. The role played by the actin cytoskeleton of these compartments and how it responds in the presence of beta-amyloid peptides, the component most commonly associated with Alzheimer's, have been described.

17.01.2019New test to detect disease and infection

Researchers have developed a highly innovative new enzyme biomarker test that has the potential to indicate diseases and bacterial contamination saving time, money and possibly lives.

17.01.2019This computer program makes pharma patents airtight

Routes to making life-saving medications and other pharmaceutical compounds are among the most carefully protected trade secrets in global industry. Building on recent work programming computers to identify synthetic pathways leading to pharmaceutically complex molecules, researchers have unveiled computerized methods to suggest only synthetic strategies that bypass patent-protected aspects of essential drugs.

17.01.2019New findings on eye-signal blending

Knowing precisely where the signals meet and the brain processes them is vital to treating amblyopia, or reduced vision in one eye because the brain and eye aren't working together properly.

17.01.2019New risk score far more effective for diabetes diagnosis

Researchers have developed a new risk score which takes into account detailed genetic information known to increase the chances of type 1 diabetes. This could be used to help identity babies at highest risk of developing the condition in the future. The score may also be used at the time of diabetes diagnosis to help decide if someone has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, which need very different treatments.

17.01.2019Engineered immune cells target broad range of pediatric solid tumors in mice

Immune cells engineered to attack childhood cancers were able to eradicate different types of pediatric tumors in mice, according to a new study.

17.01.2019Sea slug study illuminates how mitochondria move

Defects in the transport of cells' energy organelles are a suspected cause of diseases including Alzheimer's, ALS, Huntington's and Parkinson's. A new study reveals the genetics behind mitochondrial shifts.

17.01.2019Nanoparticle breakthrough in the fight against cancer

A recent study has introduced a novel targeted drug delivery system in the fight against cancer.

17.01.2019Multiple sclerosis treatments delay progression of the disease

A new study finds multiple sclerosis treatments have long-term benefits, and that early treatment is important. The study is the first to provide evidence that the currently available therapies can delay progression of disability in Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that early treatment -- particularly within five years of onset -- delayed the secondary progressive stage of MS, which is characterised by an ongoing increase of disability.

17.01.2019Soft drinks + hard work + hot weather = possible kidney disease risk

New research suggests that drinking sugary, caffeinated soft drinks while exercising in hot weather may increase the risk of kidney disease.

17.01.2019Risk for developing more than one mental health disorder revealed

A new study has revealed the risks behind developing a seconds mental health disorder after an initial diagnosis in the largest and most comprehensive study of comorbidity to date.

17.01.2019Managerialism in UK schools erodes teachers' mental health and well-being

Performance targets, increased workload, curriculum changes and other bureaucratic changes are eroding teachers' professional identity and harming their mental health, a new study finds.

17.01.2019HPV vaccination rates remain critically low among younger adolescents in the U.S.

Only about 16 percent of U.S. adolescents have been fully vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) by the time they turn 13, despite national recommendations that call for vaccination at 11 to 12 years of age. The new findings highlight the need for stronger efforts to encourage HPV vaccination and to improve immunization rates in this key age group.

17.01.2019Antibiotics still routinely prescribed in the ER for infants with viral lung infections

Despite recommendations first issued more than a decade ago, antibiotics are still routinely prescribed in US emergency rooms for infants with bronchiolitis, a common viral lung infection. The findings highlight a concerning lag in translating evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice and underscore the need to continue educating health care providers and the public about appropriate antibiotic use.

17.01.2019Dangerous increases in patients mixing opioids, benzodiazepines or Z-drugs

The number of Americans taking a dangerous combination of both opioids and benzodiazepines -- a group of drugs commonly prescribed for pain, insomnia and anxiety -- increased by 250 percent over a 15-year period, while there was an 850 percent increase in patients taking benzodiazepines and so-called Z-drugs, according to a new study.

17.01.2019Mindfulness may ease menopausal symptoms

Mindfulness may be associated with fewer menopausal symptoms for women, according to a new study. Researchers discovered that being mindful may be especially helpful for menopausal women struggling with irritability, anxiety and depression.

17.01.2019U.S. youth suicides more prevalent in states with higher gun ownership, study finds

A new study finds that states with higher levels of household gun ownership also have higher overall youth suicide rates, with every 10 percentage-point increase in household gun ownership associated with a 26.9 percent increase in the youth suicide rate.

17.01.2019Another piece of Ebola virus puzzle: Host and virus protein interaction

A team of researchers have discovered the interaction between an Ebola virus protein and a protein in human cells that may be an important key to unlocking the pathway of replication of the killer disease in human hosts.

17.01.2019World Trade Center responders at increased risk for head and neck cancers

A new study has found a significant increase in head and neck cancers among workers and volunteers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC), pointing to newly emerging risks that require ongoing monitoring and treatment of those who were exposed during the initial response.

17.01.2019Nearly a quarter of antibiotic prescriptions for children and adults may be unnecessary

One in 10 children and about one in six adults with private insurance received antibiotics they didn't need at least once in 2016, a new Michigan Medicine study suggests.

17.01.2019Scientists connect dots between colitis and colon cancer

Lingering inflammation in the colon is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer and now scientists report one way it resets the stage to enable this common and often deadly cancer.

17.01.2019Diet and food production must radically change to save planet

Transformation of the global food system is urgently needed as more than 3 billion people are malnourished (including people who are undernourished and overnourished), and food production is exceeding planetary boundaries -- driving climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution due to over-application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, and unsustainable changes in water and land use.

17.01.2019Common gene disorder causes serious 'stealth' disease, but could be easily treated

The western world's most common genetic disorder is a 'stealth condition' that causes far higher levels of serious disease and disability than previously thought, despite being easy to detect and treat.

16.01.2019Gut bacteria make key amino acids dispensable, expanding food options for invasive flies

Fruit flies fed antibiotics to suppress their gut microbiome are forced to avoid the best food patches if they lack vital amino acids, according to a new study.

 
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