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12.08.2020Internal differences: A new method for seeing into cells

The new technology may help answer outstanding questions about the immune system, cancer, Alzheimer's, and more.

12.08.2020New way to make bacteria more sensitive to antibiotics discovered

Researchers have discovered a new way to reverse antibiotic resistance in some bacteria using hydrogen sulphide (H2S). By adding H2S releasing compounds to Acinetobacter baumannii - a pathogenic bacteria that does not produce H2S on its own - they found that exogenous H2S sensitised the A. baumannii to multiple antibiotic classes. It was even able to reverse acquired resistance in A. baumannii to gentamicin.

12.08.2020Lipoic acid supplements help some obese but otherwise healthy people lose weight

A compound given as a dietary supplement to overweight but otherwise healthy people in a clinical trial caused many of the patients to slim down.

12.08.2020'AeroNabs' promise powerful, inhalable protection against COVID-19

Scientists have devised a novel approach to halting the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The researchers engineered a completely synthetic, production-ready molecule that straitjackets the crucial SARS-CoV-2 machinery that allows the virus to infect our cells. In an aerosol formulation they tested, these molecules could be self-administered with a nasal spray or inhaler.

12.08.2020Health disparities among former NFL players

Among former NFL players, Black, Hawaiian, and athletes from other racial backgrounds report worse physical, mental health outcomes than white players. The widest health gaps emerged between Black and white former NFL players. Black former players reported worse health outcomes in all five health categories, compared with their white peers. Presence of health disparities among former NLF players reflects the deep and pervasive nature of systemic inequities that persist even among elite athletes, study suggests.

11.08.2020Does high blood sugar worsen COVID-19 outcomes?

Preliminary observations of COVID-19 patients with diabetes inspired an algorithm for glucose monitoring that's suspected to help combat the virus' serious complications.

11.08.2020AI-enhanced precision medicine identifies novel autism subtype

A novel precision medicine approach enhanced by artificial intelligence has laid the groundwork for what could be the first biomedical screening and intervention tool for a subtype of autism, reports a new study.

11.08.2020Inexpensive, accessible device provides visual proof that masks block droplets

In a proof-of-concept study, researchers report that a simple, low-cost technique provided visual proof that face masks are effective in reducing droplet emissions during normal wear. They found that the best face coverings were N95 masks without valves -- the hospital-grade coverings that are used by front-line health care workers. Surgical or polypropylene masks also performed well. Hand-made cotton face coverings provided good coverage, eliminating a substantial amount of the spray from normal speech. But bandanas and neck fleeces such as balaclavas didn't block the droplets much at all.

11.08.2020Brain-NET, a deep learning methodology, accurately predicts surgeon certification scores based on neuroimaging data

Researchers demonstrated how a deep learning framework they call 'Brain-NET' can accurately predict a person's level of expertise in terms of their surgical motor skills, based solely on neuroimaging data.

11.08.2020Plant-based 'meats' improve some cardiovascular risk factors compared with red meat

Swapping out red meat for certain plant-based meat alternatives can improve some cardiovascular risk factors, according to a new study.

11.08.2020Research exposes new vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2

Using nanometer-level simulations, researchers have discovered a positively charged site (known as the polybasic cleavage site) located 10 nanometers from the actual binding site on the spike protein. The positively charged site allows strong bonding between the virus protein and the negatively charged human-cell receptors.

11.08.2020Causes of higher risk of stress fractures in female runners

A pair of new studies identify overlooked physiological factors and lack of knowledge around wellness as contributors to risk of stress fracture in women who run.

11.08.2020Pasteurization inactivates COVID-19 virus in human milk: new research

A new study has confirmed what researchers already suspected to be the case: heat inactivates SARS-CoV-2 in human milk.

11.08.2020Masks, PPE materials should be hydrophilic

Making masks and personal protective equipment (PPE) with hydrophilic surfaces, where droplets of coronavirus spread out and dry faster, could reduce infection risk, researchers say.

11.08.2020Multifocal contact lenses slow myopia progression in children

Children wearing multifocal contact lenses had slower progression of their myopia, according to new results. The findings support an option for controlling the condition, also called nearsightedness, which increases the risk of cataracts, glaucoma and retinal detachment later in life.

11.08.2020Vaping linked to COVID-19 risk in teens and young adults, study finds

Vaping is linked to a substantially increased risk of COVID-19 among teenagers and young adults, according to a new study.

11.08.2020Why does COVID-19 impact only some organs, not others?

COVID-19 proliferates through a receptor present in most of the human body. But if the receptor is so pervasive, why does the virus seem to target only specific organs?

11.08.2020Excess weight among pregnant women may interfere with child's developing brain

Obesity in expectant mothers may hinder the development of the babies' brains as early as the second trimester, a new study finds.

11.08.2020Early neural activity associated with autism

Researchers have found evidence of signature brain activity in infants that predicted ASD symptoms later at 18 months old.

11.08.2020Malaria discovery could expedite antiviral treatment for COVID-19

New research into malaria suggests targeting enzymes from the human host, rather than from the pathogen itself, could offer effective treatment for a range of infectious diseases, including COVID-19.

11.08.2020Enzyme discovered in the gut could lead to new disease biomarker

Enzymes used by bacteria to break down mucus in the gut could provide a useful biomarker for intestinal diseases, according to new research.

11.08.2020Immunotherapy-resistant cancers eliminated in mouse study

In a mouse study, researchers have found that an antibody that targets the protein TREM2 empowers tumor-destroying immune cells and improves the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy.

11.08.2020Experts recommend strict, costly approaches for reopening schools

The American Academy of Pediatrics recently highlighted the importance of students' returning to the classroom in its COVID-19 return-to-school guidance. Jason Wang, MD, PhD, of Stanford Health Policy also believes it's time for kids in the United States to get back to school. But he believes school districts could better protect their 55 million K-12 students by adhering to an additional set of strict measures.

11.08.2020Researchers create mask filtration effectiveness hierarchy

Infection prevention experts set out to gather evidence on the fitted filtration efficiency of dozens of different types of masks and mask modifications, including masks sterilized for reuse, expired masks, novel masks sourced from domestic and overseas sources, and homemade masks.

11.08.2020Clot permeability linked to first-attempt success of aspiration thrombectomy

A multicenter study reports that clot perviousness, or permeability - the ability for contrast used during the initial imaging workup to seep through a clot, as estimated by CT imaging - is associated with ''first-pass success'' in large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes initially treated with an aspiration thrombectomy approach. LVO stroke treatment success using a stent retriever-first approach to remove the brain vessel blockage was less dependent on clot perviousness.

11.08.2020Right under your nose: A more convenient way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease

Scientists discover a new way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease by analyzing the levels of specific proteins in nasal discharge. This simple and inexpensive method could help in timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, in order to start treatment as soon as possible, thus delaying disease progression.

11.08.2020Gluten in wheat: What has changed during 120 years of breeding?

In recent years, the number of people affected by celiac disease, wheat allergy or gluten or wheat sensitivity has risen sharply. But why is this the case? Could it be that modern wheat varieties contain more immunoreactive protein than in the past? A new study is helping to answer this question.

11.08.2020Protein uses two antiviral strategies to ward off infections

To protect humans against infection, a protein called MARCH8 tags the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for destruction while it merely holds HIV hostage, a new study shows.

11.08.2020Modelling parasitic worm metabolism suggests strategy for developing new drugs against infection

Scientists have revealed a way to eradicate parasitic worms by stopping them from using alternative metabolism pathways provided by bacteria that live within them, according to new findings.

11.08.2020Molecules in urine allow doctors to monitor skin cancer

What if you could simply provide a urine sample rather than undergo a painful surgical procedure to find out if your cancer was responding to treatment? It may seem too good to be true, but researchers have identified fluorescent molecules in urine that may allow patients with malignant melanoma to do just that.

11.08.2020Long-term risks of joint implants

Using highly complex analytical techniques, a group of researchers were able to observe in detail how different metals are released from joint implants and accumulate in the surrounding bone tissue. Findings showed a steady release of metals from various implant components. In contrast to previous assumptions, this was not related to the degree of mechanical stress involved.

11.08.2020Study pinpoints five most likely causes of post-traumatic stress in police officers

A combination of genetic and emotional differences may lead to post-traumatic stress (PTS) in police officers, a new study finds. Based on biological studies of officers in major cities, the study showed that the most significant PTS predictors are the tendency to startle at sudden sounds, early career displays of mental health symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression), and certain genetic differences, including some known to influence a person's immune system.

11.08.2020Nepal lockdown halved health facility births and increased stillbirths and newborn deaths

COVID-19 response has resulted in major reductions in health facility births in Nepal and widened inequalities, with significantly increased institutional stillbirth and neonatal mortality, according to a new study.

10.08.2020New study documents increasing frequency, cost, and severity of gunshot wounds

The rise in firearm violence has coincided with an increase in the severity of injuries firearms inflict as well as the cost of operations.

10.08.2020GI symptoms linked to behavioral problems in children, especially those with autism

A new study found that common gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation and bloating are linked to troubling sleep problems, self-harm and physical complaints in preschool children. According to the study, these GI symptoms are much more common and potentially disruptive in young kids with autism.

10.08.2020Agtech to the rescue in a pandemic: Adapting plant labs for human testing

Sophisticated agtech labs and equipment used for crop and animal breeding, seed testing, and monitoring of plant and animal diseases could easily be adapted for diagnostic testing and tracing in a human pandemic or epidemic, researchers say.

10.08.2020Schooling is critical for cognitive health throughout life

New research suggests that education provides little to no protection against the onset of cognitive declines later in life. It can, however, boost the cognitive skills people develop earlier in life, pushing back the point at which age-related dementia begins to impact a person's ability to care for themselves.

10.08.2020Prenatal depression can alter child's brain connectivity, affect behavior

Altered brain connectivity may be one way prenatal depression influences child behavior, according to new research.

10.08.2020Non-fasting blood test can help screen youth for prediabetes and diabetes

A simple blood test that does not require overnight fasting has been found to be an accurate screening tool for identifying youth at risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease risk later in life.

10.08.2020Coronavirus transmission risk increases along wildlife supply chains

Coronaviruses were detected in a high proportion of bats and rodents in Viet Nam from 2013 to 2014, with an increasing proportion of positive samples found along the wildlife supply chain from traders to large markets to restaurants, according to a new study.

10.08.2020What the rest of the world can learn from South Korea's COVID-19 response

As the world continues to closely monitor the newest coronavirus outbreak, the government of South Korea has been able to keep the disease under control without paralyzing the national health and economic systems.

10.08.2020HPV strains may impact cervical cancer prognosis

An analysis of cervical cancers in Ugandan women has uncovered significant genomic differences between tumors caused by different strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), signifying HPV type may impact cervical cancer characteristics and prognosis.

10.08.2020Quality of care at rural hospitals may not differ as much as reported

A research team found that differences in diagnosis coding practices has resulted in artificially inflated mortality rate comparisons to other hospitals.

10.08.2020Globally, only half of women get treatment for preventable killer of newborns

Only half of pregnant women worldwide who need a 50-year-old treatment that prevents an often-fatal disease in fetuses and newborns receive it, researchers have found.

10.08.2020Imaging method highlights new role for cellular 'skeleton' protein

While your skeleton helps your body to move, fine skeleton-like filaments within your cells likewise help cellular structures to move. Now, researchers have developed a new imaging method that lets them monitor a small subset of these filaments, called actin.

10.08.2020Nanocatalysts that remotely control chemical reactions inside living cells

The enzymes responsible for catalytic reactions in our body's biological reactions are difficult to use for diagnosis or treatment as they react only to certain molecules or have low stability. Many researchers anticipate that if these issues are ameliorated or if artificial catalysts are developed to create a synergetic effect by meeting the enzymes in the body, there will be new ways to diagnose and treat diseases. In particular, if artificial catalysts that respond to external stimuli such as magnetic fields are developed, new treatment methods that remotely control bioreactions from outside the body can become a reality.

10.08.2020Confused by whole grain labels on food packaging? Study finds you're not alone

Whole grain labels are confusing to consumers, according to a new study that found many made the wrong choice when asked to pick the healthier option based on product labels. The researchers say the results provide legal evidence for changes in labeling policies.

10.08.2020Gulf war illness, chronic fatigue syndrome distinct illnesses, study suggests

A brain imaging study of veterans with Gulf War illness (GWI) and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (sometimes called myalgic encephalomyelitis), has shown that the two illnesses produce distinctly different, abnormal patterns of brain activity after moderate exercise.

10.08.2020New approach to treating osteoarthritis advances

Injections of a natural 'energy' molecule prompted regrowth of almost half of the cartilage lost with aging in knees, a new study in rodents shows.

10.08.2020New treatment targets found for blinding retinal disease

When the eye isn't getting enough oxygen in the face of common conditions like premature birth or diabetes, it sets in motion a state of frenzied energy production that can ultimately result in blindness, and now scientists have identified new points where they may be able to calm the frenzy and instead enable recovery.

10.08.2020Study finds ATV-related head and neck injuries among youth continue to remain high

A new study analyzed data regarding ATV-related head and neck injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 1990 through 2014 involving patients younger than 18 years of age.

10.08.2020Mouthwashes could reduce the risk of coronavirus transmission, study shows

Results from cell culture experiments show that commercially available preparations have an effect on Sars-Cov-2 viruses.

10.08.2020Miscarriage risk increases each week alcohol is used in early pregnancy

Each week a woman consumes alcohol during the first five to 10 weeks of pregnancy is associated with an incremental 8% increase in risk of miscarriage, according to a new study.

08.08.2020Chemist's new process fast-tracks drug treatments for viral infections and cancer

Discovering antiviral and anticancer drugs will soon be faster and cheaper thanks to new research.

07.08.2020Highly sensitive dopamine detector uses 2D materials

A supersensitive dopamine detector can help in the early diagnosis of several disorders that result in too much or too little dopamine, according to new research.

07.08.2020New test better predicts which babies will develop type 1 diabetes

A new approach to predicting which babies will develop type 1 diabetes moves a step closer to routine testing for newborns which could avoid life-threatening complications.

07.08.2020Sugar-based signature identifies T cells where HIV hides despite antiretroviral therapy

Scientists may have discovered a new way of identifying and targeting hidden HIV viral reservoirs during treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). These findings may have translational implications for improving the long-term care of HIV positive people.

07.08.2020Strong link found between abnormal liver tests and poor COVID-19 outcomes

Researchers found that patients with COVID-19 presented with abnormal liver tests at much higher rates than suggested by earlier studies. They also discovered that higher levels of liver enzymes -- proteins released when the liver is damaged -- were associated with poorer outcomes for these patients, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death.

07.08.2020Newly discovered mutation could point to heart disease therapeutic target

New work identifies a potential therapeutic target for clogged arteries and other health risks that stem from an excess of harmful fats in the bloodstream. The study opens the door for the design of more specific MTP inhibitors that could reduce circulating triglyceride levels without the risk of unpleasant and serious side effects in the intestines and liver.

07.08.2020Measuring electron emission from irradiated biomolecules

Researchers have successfully determined the characteristics of electron emission when high-velocity ions collide with adenine - one of the four key nucleobases of DNA.

 
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