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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

16.07.2019Prescribed opioids associated with overdose risk for family members without prescriptions

Access to family members' drugs may be a strong risk factor for overdose in individuals without their own prescriptions, according to a new study.

16.07.2019Women's stronger immune response to flu vaccination diminishes with age

Women tend to have a greater immune response to a flu vaccination compared to men, but their advantage largely disappears as they age and their estrogen levels decline, suggests a new study.

16.07.2019Researchers wirelessly hack 'boss' gene, a step toward reprogramming the human genome

A new study describes how researchers wirelessly controlled FGFR1 -- a gene that plays a key role in how humans grow from embryos to adults -- in lab-grown brain tissue. The ability to manipulate the gene, the study's authors say, could lead to new cancer treatments, and ways to prevent and treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

16.07.2019First ever state sepsis regulation in US tied to lower death rates

Death rates from sepsis fell faster in New York than expected -- and faster than in peer states -- following the introduction of the nation's first state-mandated sepsis regulation, according to an analysis. The finding is good news for the nearly dozen other states in varying stages of adopting similar policies to reduce deaths from sepsis, the leading cause of death in hospitalized patients.

16.07.2019Poor sleep quality and fatigue plague women with premature ovarian insufficiency

Sleep disturbances are a frequent complaint of women in the menopause transition and postmenopause. A new study demonstrates that women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) who are receiving hormone therapy have poorer sleep quality and greater fatigue than women of the same age with preserved ovarian function.

16.07.2019Slug, a stem cell regulator, keeps breast cells healthy by promoting repair of DNA damage

A new biomedical research study finds a transcription factor called Slug contributes to breast cell fitness by promoting efficient repair of DNA damage. The absence of Slug leads to unresolved DNA damage and accelerated aging of breast cells.

16.07.2019Antioxidant precursor molecule could improve Parkinson's

The naturally occurring molecule N-acetylcysteine (NAC) shows benefit in a clinical trial for Parkinson's Disease.

16.07.2019Australian bee sting vaccine trial holds promise against allergic reactions

Most people have probably been stung by a bee and while it can be painful, it's especially dangerous for those at risk of suffering a life threatening allergic reaction. Australian researchers have successfully completed a human trial on a vaccine designed to eliminate the risk of a severe allergic reaction to European honeybee stings.

16.07.2019Osteoarthritis linked to higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease

Researchers have investigated the link between osteoarthritis and mortality in an epidemiological study. It was shown that the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease was higher for people with osteoarthritis than for the rest of the population.

16.07.2019Scientists uncover mechanism behind development of viral infections

A team of researchers found that immune cells undergoing stress and an altered metabolism are the reasons why some individuals become sick from viral infections while others do not, when exposed to the same virus.

16.07.2019Backed in black: How to get people to buy more produce

Researchers may have figured out the secret to get people to buy more fresh produce: dress veggies up in black. A new study looks at how the backgrounds of grocery store displays impact the attractiveness of vegetables. After testing an array of colors and neutral shades, they found the best bet is to go back in black.

16.07.2019Gut microbes protect against neurologic damage from viral infections

Gut microbes produce compounds that prime immune cells to destroy harmful viruses in the brain and nervous system, according to a mouse study.

16.07.2019Study identifies potential markers of lung cancer

Researchers identify markers that can distinguish between major subtypes of lung cancer and can accurately identify lung cancer stage.

16.07.2019A genomic barcode tracker for immune cells

A new research method to pinpoint the immune cells that recognise cancer could significantly change how we treat the disease.

16.07.2019Human pancreas on a chip opens new possibilities for studying disease

Scientists created human pancreas on a chip that allowed them to identify the possible cause of a frequent and deadly complication of cystic fibrosis (CF) called CF-Related Diabetes, or CFRD. It may be feasible to also use the small two-chambered device, which features bioengineered human pancreatic organoids to study the causes of non-CF-related conditions such as type 1 and 2 diabetes.

16.07.2019Differences in genes impact response to cryptococcus infection

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that infects people with weakened immune systems, particularly those with advanced HIV/AIDS. New research could mean a better understanding of this infection and potentially better treatments for patients.

15.07.2019Genetic study reveals metabolic origins of anorexia

A global study suggests that anorexia nervosa is at least partly a metabolic disorder, and not purely psychiatric as previously thought.

15.07.2019Dietary quality influences microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa

Studying the association between diet quality and microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa revealed that a high-quality diet is linked to more potentially beneficial bacteria, while a low-quality diet is associated with an increase in potentially harmful bacteria.

15.07.2019Widespread global implementation of WHO's 'Treat All' HIV recommendation

A new study shows that the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2015 recommendation for immediate treatment of all people living with HIV has become the standard of care across HIV clinics in countries around the world. While most countries have adopted the WHO's ''Treat All'' recommendation, the extent to which these guidelines had been translated into practice at HIV clinics around the world was previously unknown.

15.07.2019Investigation into fungal infection reveals genetic vulnerability in Hmong people

A new study has identified a specific genetic vulnerability among Hmong people that renders them more susceptible to the disease-causing fungus.

15.07.2019Cholesterol-lowering drugs under-prescribed for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Statins, the most commonly used effective lipid-lowering drugs, are significantly underutilized to treat lipid abnormalities in patients with and at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), according to a retrospective study of more than 280,000 patients in Alberta, Canada. Investigators report that only two-thirds of these patients were receiving moderate/high-intensity statins, and of the ones treated, more than a third are under-treated.

15.07.2019Advantages for stress urinary incontinence surgery

One of the most commonly performed surgeries to treat stress urinary incontinence in women may have better long-term results than another common surgical technique, according to a new study. The retrospective study of more than 1,800 cases at Mayo Clinic from 2002 to 2012 found that the need for additional surgery was twice as high after a transobturator sling surgery compared with a retropubic sling procedure.

15.07.2019Curbing indoor air pollution in India

Clean cooking energy transitions are extremely challenging to achieve, but they offer enormous potential health, environmental, and societal benefits. A study provides new insights about an Indian program that aims to solve one of the most difficult developmental challenges of the 21st century -- smoky kitchens.

15.07.2019Cannabis treatment counters addiction: First study of its kind

An Australian study has demonstrated that cannabis-based medication helps tackle dependency on cannabis, one of the most widely used drugs globally. A new article provides the first strong evidence that cannabis replacement therapy could reduce the rate of relapse. The principles are similar to nicotine replacement in that the patient is provided a safer drug and in an environment that helps break the pattern of use.

15.07.2019Combined breast and gynecologic surgery: Study says not so fast

A new study argues against combined approach: Patients undergoing coordinated breast and gynecologic procedures had a significantly longer length of hospital stay, and higher complication, readmission, and reoperation rates compared with patients who underwent single site surgery.

15.07.2019Maternal secrets of our earliest ancestors unlocked

New research brings to light for the first time the evolution of maternal roles and parenting responsibilities in one of our oldest evolutionary ancestors. Australopithecus africanus mothers breastfed their infants for the first 12 months after birth, and continued to supplement their diets with breastmilk during periods of food shortage. Tooth chemistry analyses enable scientists to 'read' more than two-million-year-old teeth. Finding demonstrates why early human ancestors had fewer offspring and extended parenting role.

15.07.2019A legal framework for vector-borne diseases and land use

Vector-borne diseases -- caused by parasites, viruses, and bacteria transmitted by insects and animals -- account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases on Earth. While many emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are preventable through informed protective measures, the way that humans alter our landscape -- such as for farming and urban growth -- is making this task more difficult.

15.07.2019Turbo chip for drug development

In spite of increasing demand, the number of newly developed drugs decreased continuously in the past decades. The search for new active substances, their production, characterization, and screening for biological effectiveness are very complex and costly. One of the reasons is that all three steps have been carried out separately so far. Scientists have now succeeded in combining these processes on a chip and, hence, facilitating and accelerating the procedures to produce promising substances.

15.07.2019Loose RNA molecules rejuvenate skin

Want to smooth out your wrinkles, erase scars and sunspots, and look years younger? Millions of Americans a year turn to lasers and prescription drugs to rejuvenate their skin, but exactly how that rejuvenation works has never been fully explained. Now, researchers have discovered that laser treatments and the drug retinoic acid share a common molecular pathway.

15.07.2019Blood samples from the zoo help predict diseases in humans

Penguins, Asian elephants and many other animal species live in the zoos of Saarbrücken and Neunkirchen. As they come from different continents, blood is regularly taken from the animals to check their health. These blood samples have now been used by bioinformaticians and human geneticists to search for biomarkers with which diseases can be detected at an early stage.

15.07.2019An inflammatory diet correlates with colorectal cancer risk

This new study correlates a proinflamatory diet with the risk of developing colorectal cancer among the Spanish population.

15.07.2019Wearing hearing aid may help protect brain in later life

A new study has concluded that people who wear a hearing aid for age-related hearing problems maintain better brain function over time than those who do not.

15.07.2019Scientists explore blood flow bump that happens when our neurons are significantly activated

When a group of our neurons get activated by thinking hard about a math problem or the vibrant colors of an exotic flower, within a single second blood flow to those brain cells increases a bit.

15.07.2019Differences in MS patients' cerebrospinal fluid may be key to drugs that halt progression

Effective therapies exist for managing relapsing/remitting MS, but treatment for progressive MS has proved more challenging. Now, a new article has identified potential mechanisms that may inform the development of therapies that effectively manage progressive MS.

15.07.2019DNA replication machinery captured at atom-level detail

Life depends on double-stranded DNA unwinding and separating into single strands that can be copied for cell division. Scientists have determined at atomic resolution the structure of machinery that drives the process.

15.07.2019Surgery before pregnancy linked to higher risk of opioid withdrawal in babies

Babies whose mothers underwent surgery before pregnancy have an increased risk of opioid withdrawal symptoms at birth, according to a new study.

15.07.2019Meet the six-legged superfoods: Grasshoppers top insect antioxidant-rich list

A new study has measured antioxidant levels in commercially available edible insects. Among the findings: crickets pack 75 percent the antioxidant power of fresh orange juice, and silkworm fat twice that of olive oil.

15.07.2019Cancer tissue-freezing approach may help more breast cancer patients in lower income countries

A new reusable device can help women with breast cancer in lower income countries by using carbon dioxide, a widely available and affordable gas, to power a cancer tissue-freezing probe instead of industry-standard argon.

15.07.2019Early and ongoing experiences of weight stigma linked to self-directed weight shaming

Researchers surveyed more than 18,000 adults enrolled in the commercial weight management program WW International, and found that participants who internalized weight bias the most tended to be younger, female, have a higher body mass index (BMI), and have an earlier onset of their weight struggle.

15.07.2019Sudden cardiac arrest in athletes: Prevention and management

It's marathon season, and every so often a news report will focus on an athlete who has collapsed from sudden cardiac arrest. Although uncommon, these events get attention. A new review looks at recent evidence to help physicians prevent and manage the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in competitive athletes.

15.07.2019Political support, strong public health systems key to eliminating measles outbreaks worldwide

Strong political support and strong public health systems are necessary to combat measles outbreaks, which are growing in frequency around the world, argue public health experts.

14.07.2019Healthy lifestyle may offset genetic risk of dementia

Living a healthy lifestyle may help offset a person's genetic risk of dementia, according to new research.

14.07.2019Study gives insight into sun-induced DNA damage and cell repair

New research has provided a better understanding of the dynamic process by which sunlight-induced DNA damage is recognized by the molecular repair machinery in cells as needing repair.

14.07.2019Adults with HIV who have compassionate care providers start and remain in treatment longer

Researchers find patients who perceive their primary care providers as lacking empathy and not willing to include them in decision making are at risk for abandoning treatment or not seeking treatment at all.

14.07.2019Athletes at a higher risk for ACL injury after return to sport

Young athletes who do not achieve a 90 percent score on a battery of tests that measure fitness to return to athletic competition, including quadricep strength, are at increased risk for a second knee injury, according to new research.

14.07.2019Does use of headgear reduce the rate injuries in high school women's lacrosse?

Headgear worn during women's lacrosse practice and games can reduce the rate of head and face injuries as well as concussions, according to new research.

13.07.2019Outcomes of non-operatively treated elbow ulnar in professional baseball players

Professional baseball players with a low-grade elbow injury that occurs on the humeral side of the elbow have a better chance of returning to throw and returning to play, and a lower risk of ulnar collateral ligament surgery than players who suffered more severe injuries on the ulnar side of the elbow.

13.07.2019Over-conditioning kills: Non-traumatic fatalities in football is preventable

Most non-traumatic fatalities among high school and college football athletes do not occur while playing the game of football, but rather during conditioning sessions which are often associated with overexertion or punishment drills required by coaches and team staff, according to new research.

12.07.2019New technology improves atrial fibrillation detection after stroke

It's important to determine whether stroke patients also experience atrial fibrillation (Afib). Monitoring technology could make the process easier and more accurate.

12.07.2019Improving care quality for hospitalized socially at-risk patients

Nurses play a pivotal role in caring for hospitalized patients with social risk factors and preparing them for discharge. Now, a new study illustrates how certain health system constraints present barriers to effective care and impact outcomes for patients with high social risks.

12.07.2019Novel nanoparticles deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cell with much higher efficiency

Researchers have developed a significantly improved delivery mechanism for the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method in the liver. The delivery uses biodegradable synthetic lipid nanoparticles that carry the molecular editing tools into the cell to precisely alter the cells' genetic code with as much as 90 percent efficiency. The nanoparticles could help overcome technical hurdles to enable gene editing in a broad range of clinical therapeutic applications.

12.07.2019How artificial intelligence can be used to more quickly and accurately diagnose breast cancer

Breast ultrasound elastography is an emerging imaging technique used by doctors to help diagnose breast cancer by evaluating a lesion's stiffness in a non-invasive way. Researchers identified the critical role machine learning can play in making this technique more efficient and accurate in diagnosis.

12.07.2019How good is your hospital?

Researchers have proposed a rating system that standardizes and combines data from five leading hospital rating systems into an easy-to-understand composite score of one to 10 that will help guide consumer's hospitals choice.

12.07.2019C. difficile resists hospital disinfectant, persists on hospital gowns, stainless steel

Surgical gowns and stainless steel remained contaminated with the pathogen Clostridium difficile even after being treated with the recommended disinfectant, according to new research.

12.07.2019New gene linked to healthy aging in worms

Damage to gene causes impaired movement in adult worms.

12.07.2019Dentistry: Root canal work not so bad after all

Root canal work is not as bad as people think when compared to other dental procedures. Self-reporting of their dental health suggests that patients find the procedure no worse than other dental work which overturns the popular belief that root canal work is the most unpleasant dental treatment.

12.07.2019HIV: Reprogramming cells to control infection

Following research on cohorts, scientists have described the characteristics of CD8 immune cells in these 'HIV controller' subjects. The unique antiviral power of these immune cells can be attributed to an optimal metabolic program that confers persistence and the ability to react effectively against infected cells. Working ex vivo, the scientists successfully reprogrammed cells from infected non-controller individuals to give them the same antiviral potency as controllers' cells.

12.07.2019Fewer than half of US adults exposed to court-ordered anti-smoking advertisements

The tobacco industry's court-ordered anti-smoking advertisements reached just 40.6 percent of US adults and 50.5 percent of current smokers in 2018, according to new research. Exposure to the advertisements was even lower among certain ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups historically targeted by tobacco industry marketing.

12.07.2019Seeing greenery linked to less intense and frequent unhealthy cravings

New research shows that being able to see green spaces from your home is associated with reduced cravings for alcohol, cigarettes and harmful foods.

12.07.2019Targeting a key protein may keep ovarian cancer cells from spreading

Preventing a protein from doing its job may keep a certain type of ovarian cancer cell from growing and dividing uncontrollably in the lab, according to a new study.

 
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