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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

25.03.2019Testosterone can help men with hypogonadism lose weight, keep it off

Long-term testosterone therapy can help men with hypogonadism lose weight and maintain their weight loss, researchers report.

25.03.2019Why immunotherapy is not effective for some patients with metastatic melanoma and kidney cancer

White blood cells known as B cells have been shown to be effective for predicting which cancer patients will respond to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy, according to a new study.

25.03.2019A viable alternative to Medicare-for-all?

Medicare-for-all, a solution that would bring United States healthcare policies more in line with other industrial nations, faces strong opposition and is unlikely to be enacted in the foreseeable future. Researchers now propose another approach that they believe would achieve wider access to care without triggering widespread opposition: a Medicare buy-in option for individuals under 65 years of age.

25.03.2019Removal of 'zombie cells' alleviates causes of diabetes in obese mice

Researchers have shown that when senescent cells -- also known as 'zombie cells' -- are removed from fat tissue in obese mice, severity of diabetes and a range of its causes or consequences decline or disappear.

25.03.2019Continued PTSD in women exposed to deepwater horizon oil spill

A study reports that women exposed to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (BP) Oil Spill continue to experience symptoms of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Less than half reported receiving past-year mental health treatment despite the high levels of PTSD symptoms, which suggests that many affected women may not be receiving needed mental health care.

25.03.2019Hearing loss before 50 may mean higher risk of drug and alcohol issues

People under age 50 with hearing loss misuse prescription opioids at twice the rate of their hearing peers, and are also more likely to misuse alcohol and other drugs, a new national study finds. This means that health care providers may need to take special care when treating pain and mental health conditions in deaf and hard-of-hearing young adults, the researchers say.

25.03.2019Study questions value of genetic risk scores

What's known as the genome-wide polygenic score, or GPS, combines information from many thousands of genetic markers, each with only a minimal effect, to produce an overall assessment of disease risk based on an individual's entire genetic background. While a recent publication claimed that the GPS could be used by doctors to identify patients at high risk of conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, a new study casts doubt on these claims.

25.03.2019Mothers of fussy babies at higher risk of depressive symptoms

As FDA approval of the first postpartum depression drug hits the news, study looks at how infant fussiness and a baby's level of prematurity may influence the severity of maternal depressive symptoms.

25.03.2019New heart valve aimed at high-risk patients

Researchers have created the first-ever nanocomposite biomaterial heart-valve developed to reduce or eliminate complications related to heart transplants. By using a newly developed technique, the researchers were able to build a more durable valve that enables the heart to adapt faster and more seamlessly.

25.03.2019Parasitic worms cause cancer -- and could help cure it

Billions worldwide are infected with tropical worms. Unsurprisingly, most of these people live in poor countries, kept poor by the effects of worm-related malnourishment. What may surprise many is that worms also cause the majority of cases of some cancers in these countries.

25.03.2019Genetic variants may influence poststroke recovery

Our genes may have a bearing not only on our stroke risk, but probably also on how well we recover after stroke. For the first time, scientists have identified common genetic variants that are associated with outcome after ischemic stroke.

25.03.2019Cesarean deliveries in India: Too many and yet too few

Had India fallen prey to the epidemic of cesarean currently affecting many countries in the world?

25.03.2019Groin and hips of hockey players examined in five-second test

Five seconds is enough to assess the status of a hockey player's groin. For the first time, a simple field test, called the five-second squeeze test, has been used on icehockey players to see if it can indicate current hip/groin function and hip muscle strength. According to the new study, there is a clear correlation between pain levels during the five second squeeze test and impaired sporting function as well as diminished hip muscle strength.

25.03.2019Drug diversity in bacteria

Bacteria produce a cocktail of various bioactive natural products in order to survive in hostile environments with competing (micro)organisms. Researchers demonstrate that they do so by modifying basic structures, similar to the approach taken in pharmaceutical research.

25.03.2019Engineering cellular function without living cells

Scientists have come up with a systematic method for studying and even predicting gene expression - without using cells. Using their innovative, quantitative approach, they measured important parameters governing gene regulation. This allowed them to design and construct a synthetic biological logic gate, which could one day be used to introduce new functions into cells.

25.03.2019Tuck into colourful fruits and vegetables and see the light

A $5.7 billion global medical bill to restore sight for the estimated 45 million people with cataracts could be slashed in half by a diet rich in colourful fruits and vegetables, according to an international study.

25.03.2019New computational tool could change how we study pathogens

A sophisticated new analysis too incorporating advanced mathematical strategies could help revolutionize the way researchers investigate the spread and distribution of dangerous, fast-evolving disease vectors.

25.03.2019Giving intravenous therapy to children at home is costly, lowers parents' quality of life

When treating patients, doctors sometimes overlook how their decisions impact a world they never see: a patient's home life. In the case of some serious infections in children, oral antimicrobial drugs are just as good at treating these ailments at home as the standard, intravenous medications. But according to new research, by-mouth medications excel in the important measure of preserving parents' quality of life.

25.03.2019Tissue engineering: Hydrogel for enhanced cell encapsulation and delivery

Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) hydrogel has great potential as a cell-encapsulation delivery carrier for sustained release of paracrine factors and for tissue regeneration, with unique versatility for injection, scaffolding, and 3D bioprinting.

25.03.2019Detrimental effect of overlooking female athletes' nutritional needs

As poor nutrition can negatively affect everything from bone to reproductive health, more attention needs to be paid to the specific nutritional needs of female athletes, researchers argue.

25.03.2019Aspirin to fight an expensive global killer infection

Tuberculosis is far from eradicated around the world and still infects more than 1,400 people per year in Australia. Antibiotic resistant tuberculosis is particularly deadly and expensive to treat, costing up to $250,000 to treat a single case in Australia. Scientists have been working on new ways to treat tuberculosis by increasing the effectiveness of the immune system.

25.03.2019Peptide shows promise for protecting kidneys from nephritis

A synthetic peptide appears to directly disrupt the destructive inflammation that occurs in nephritis, enabling the kidneys to better recover and maintain their important functions, investigators report.

25.03.2019Understanding gene interactions holds key to personalized medicine

Scientists outline a new framework for studying gene function -- not in isolation, gene by gene, but as a network, to understand how multiple genes and genetic background influence trait inheritance.

25.03.2019How watching TV and movies helps people with attachment issues

People who have trouble with romantic relationships may watch movies and TV shows for more than just a chance to escape from their lives for a bit. New research suggests that people with attachment issues are more likely than others to be engaged in the stories - for instance, to say that they feel connected to the fictional characters and think about what they would do if they were in the same situations.

25.03.2019Obesity speeds up the start of puberty in boys

Girls are not the only ones who go through puberty early if they have obesity. Boys with obesity enter puberty at an earlier age than average, according to a new study.

25.03.2019Autoimmune diseases are related to each other, some more than others

Researchers using the world's largest twin registry to study seven autoimmune diseases found the risk of developing the seven diseases is largely inherited, but that some diseases are more closely related than others.

25.03.2019Investigational obesity drug, oxytocin, weakens brain's reward signals for food

The hormone oxytocin reduces the communication between different brain areas involved in the cognitive, sensory and emotional processing of food cues that people with obesity demonstrate when they look at high-calorie foods.

25.03.2019Adipose hormone may play role in obesity-related asthma

New research suggests a hormone released from fat tissue is critical in the development of obesity-related asthma and may be a target of future treatments for the disease.

25.03.2019Exposure to HIV virus, treatment before birth linked to obesity later in life

Teens and young adults who were exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy before birth but are HIV-negative themselves are at increased risk of obesity and asthma-like symptoms.

25.03.2019Screen time plus snacking a risk for metabolic disorder in teens

Teens who sit for hours watching TV, using the computer or playing video games while eating unhealthy snacks are at increased risk for a group of risk factors for heart disease and diabetes.

25.03.2019Chemicals in household dust may promote fat cell development

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals present in household dust promote the development of fat cells in a cell model and could contribute to increased growth in children relative to their age.

25.03.2019Particulate air pollution linked with reduced sperm production in mice

Exposure to tiny air pollution particles may lead to reduced sperm production, suggests new research in mice.

25.03.2019BPA exposure during pregnancy can alter circadian rhythms

Exposure to the widely used chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy, even at levels lower than the regulated 'safe' human exposure level, can lead to changes in circadian rhythms, according to a mice study. The researchers report these changes may be a contributing factor in hyperactivity seen in BPA-exposed mice.

24.03.2019Smart speaker technology harnessed for hospital medical treatments

Smart speakers that are customarily used in your living room can be programmed to act as an aid to physicians in hospital operating rooms, according to new research.

24.03.2019New IR treatment for 'tennis elbow' reduces pain and inflammation without surgery

Tennis elbow, the painful chronic condition that affects up to 3 percent of the US adult population, can be effectively treated through transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), an image-guided, non-surgical treatment that decreases abnormal blood flow to the injured area to reduce inflammation and pain, according to new research.

24.03.2019Fathers-to-be: Smoking could harm your baby

Fathers-to-be who smoke may increase the risk of congenital heart defects in their offspring, according to a new study. For mothers-to-be, both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke were detrimental.

23.03.2019Breast cancer may be likelier to spread to bone with nighttime dim-light exposure

Exposure to dim light at night, which is common in today's lifestyle, may contribute to the spread of breast cancer to the bones, researchers have shown for the first time in an animal study.

23.03.2019For migraine sufferers with obesity, losing weight can decrease headaches

For migraine sufferers with obesity, losing weight can decrease headaches and improve quality of life, researchers report.

23.03.2019Eating later in the day may be associated with obesity

Eating later in the day may contribute to weight gain, according to a new study.

23.03.2019Improved PCOS symptoms correlate with gut bacterial composition

Symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) improved with exposure to healthy bacteria in the gut, according to a study in a mouse model of this common women's endocrine disorder.

23.03.2019Bisphosphonates increasingly prescribed to the women most likely to benefit

In recent years, women who start taking bisphosphonates (BPs) to treat osteoporosis and prevent fracture have trended from younger to older and from having osteopenia to having osteoporosis, researchers report.

23.03.2019In healthy young women, sleep quality varies throughout the menstrual cycle

Young women are more likely to experience sleep disruption in the days leading up to their menstrual period, according to a new study.

23.03.2019Another possible consequence of the opioid epidemic: hormone deficiencies

Many people who use opioid medications long term do not produce enough testosterone or another important hormone, cortisol, according to a new study.

23.03.2019Sperm DNA damage may contribute to repeated miscarriages

Some cases of recurrent pregnancy loss may be caused by sperm DNA damage in the male partner, rather than by a problem in affected women.

23.03.2019Ovary function is preserved in transgender men at one year of testosterone therapy

Transgender men preserve their fertility potential even after one year of treatment with the male hormone testosterone, according to a new study.

23.03.2019Levothyroxine treatment in women with thyroid antibodies may not increase live birth rate

Treating women with thyroid antibodies but a normal thyroid function with a medicine called Levothyroxine does not make them more likely to deliver a live baby, new research suggests.

23.03.2019Treating diabetes in older adults requires simpler medication regimens, looser glycemic targets

Simplifying medication regimens and tailoring glycemic targets in older adults with diabetes improves adherence and avoids treatment-related complications.

23.03.2019A1c test misses many cases of diabetes

Using the hemoglobin A1c blood test to diagnose diabetes tends to underestimate the prevalence of the disease, according to a new study.

23.03.2019New hybrid closed loop insulin pump proves hard to use for some patients with diabetes

Among first-time users of a new insulin pump that automatically delivers insulin to people with type 1 diabetes, nearly one-fifth stopped using the device, primarily because of difficulties meeting the technical demands system, researchers say.

22.03.2019Squishing blood stem cells could facilitate harvest for transplants

How deformable cells are, and thus how stiff or squishy they are, plays an important role in retaining blood-forming stem cells in their marrow niches and thus preserving their long-term repopulation capabilities.

22.03.2019Anti-TB drugs can increase risk of TB re-infection

Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are very effective in controlling TB infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). They don't, however, always prevent reinfection. Why this happens is one of the long-standing questions in TB research. A team of scientists may have found the answer... in the gut.

22.03.2019Ankle exoskeleton fits under clothes for potential broad adoption

The device does not require additional components such as batteries or actuators carried on the back or waist.

22.03.2019Obese mouse mothers trigger heart problems in offspring

Mitochondria manufacture energy in every cell of the body, including heart muscle cells. A new study shows that cardiac mitochondria are abnormal in the offspring of mouse mothers that become obese due to a high-fat, high sugar diet. Those offspring then pass on the mitochondrial defects at least two more generations.

22.03.2019Potential new therapy for liver diseases

Drug therapy may effectively treat a potentially life-threatening condition associated with cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, according to a new study.

22.03.2019Mailing colorectal cancer screening kit found effective, regardless of financial incentive

Roughly a quarter of patients overdue for colorectal cancer screening mailed completed kits back within two months, even if they weren't given any kind of financial incentive.

22.03.2019A protein's surprising role offers clues to limit graft-vs.-host disease

In a surprising finding, researchers showed the protein NLRP6 aggravated the difficult symptoms of gastrointestinal graft-vs.-host disease. Knocking out this protein in mice led to significantly better survival and less severe GVHD.

22.03.2019Generic weight-loss drug may be safe and effective for long-term treatment

An inexpensive weight-loss drug approved 60 years ago for only short-term use also may be safe and effective for longer-term treatment, according to a new study.

22.03.2019When neurons are out of shape, antidepressants may not work

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed medication for major depressive disorder (MDD), yet scientists still do not understand why the treatment does not work in nearly thirty percent of patients with MDD. Now, researchers have discovered differences in growth patterns of neurons of SSRI-resistant patients. The work has implications for depression as well as other psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia that likely also involve abnormalities of the serotonin system in the brain.

22.03.2019How does estrogen protect bones? Unraveling a pathway to menopausal bone loss

Women who have reached menopause are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis, which can lead to bone fractures and long-term impairment of mobility. Studies have suggested a link between reduced bone density and low estrogen levels due to menopause, but the basis for this link is unclear. Researchers found that the protein Sema3A plays a key role in maintaining healthy bones, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue to treat osteoporosis.

22.03.2019New mechanism to reduce inflammation

Researchers have identified two proteins that act as gatekeepers to dampen a potentially life-threatening immune response to chronic infection.

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