Science Daily

https://www.sciencedaily.com

Health and Medicine

Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

30.10.2020Novel adoptive cell transfer method shortens timeline for T-cell manufacture

Researchers find a new way to generate T-cells faster, making immediate treatment with this therapy possible.

30.10.2020Coronavirus mutation may have made it more contagious

A study involving more than 5,000 COVID-19 patients in Houston finds that the virus that causes the disease is accumulating genetic mutations, one of which may have made it more contagious. This mirrors a study published in July that found that around the world, viral strains with the same genetic mutation quickly outcompeted other strains.

30.10.2020Study finds faster, wider spread of COVID-19 in US households

COVID-19 spreads faster and more widely throughout US households than previously reported, according to new preliminary research from a multicenter study.

30.10.2020New cause of inflammation in people with HIV identified

A new study examined what factors could be contributing to inflammation, and they identified the inability to control HIV RNA production from existing HIV DNA as a potential key driver of inflammation.

30.10.2020Infection by confection: COVID-19 and the risk of trick-or-treating

Researchers determined that COVID-19 transmission risk via Halloween candies is low, even when they are handled by infected people, but handwashing and disinfecting collected sweets reduces risk even further.

30.10.2020New synthetic DNA vaccine against Powassan virus

Scientists have designed and tested the first-of-its-kind synthetic DNA vaccine against Powassan virus (POWV), targeting portions of the virus envelope protein.

30.10.2020Healthcare app reduces symptoms of COPD compared to regular treatment

A new healthcare app that helps people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) manage their condition can speed up recovery after hospital admission and reduce flare-ups of symptoms, a newly published study has shown.

30.10.2020Aspirin use best for those with high coronary calcium, low risk of bleeding

An X-ray test commonly used to assess hardening of the arteries could help doctors decide whether the benefits of taking aspirin to prevent a first heart attack or stroke outweigh the risks of bleeding from its use, research suggests.

30.10.2020Clinical trial indicates monoclonal antibody lowered hospitalizations and emergency visits

COVID-19 (coronavirus) patients who were administered a novel antibody had fewer symptoms and were less likely to require hospitalization or emergency medical care than those who did not receive the antibody, according to a new study.

30.10.2020Mothers pass on allergies to offspring

Maternal antibodies primed to react to specific allergens can cross the placenta, passing on transiently allergic reactions to offspring, according to new preclinical research. The finding hints at why infants exhibit allergies so early in life and suggests possible targets for intervention.

30.10.2020A new way to create a spectrum of natural-looking hair colors

Northwestern University researchers have developed a new way to create a spectrum of natural-looking hair colors, ranging from blond to black, by using enzymes to catalyze synthetic melanin.

30.10.2020Compression garments reduce strength loss after training

Regular training enhances your strength, but recovery is equally important. Elastic bandages and compression garments are widely used in sports to facilitate recovery and prevent injuries. Now, a research team has determined that compression garments also reduce strength loss after strenuous exercise.

30.10.2020Malaria parasites adapt to survive the dry season

The main parasite that causes malaria can alter its gene expression to survive undetected in the human blood stream, new research has shown.

30.10.2020Beetroot peptide as potential drug candidate for treating diseases

Medical researchers isolated a peptide (small protein molecule) from beetroot. The peptide is able to inhibit a particular enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of messenger molecules in the body. Due to its particularly stable molecular structure and pharmacological properties, the beetroot peptide may be a good candidate for development of a drug to treat certain inflammatory diseases, such as e.g. neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases.

30.10.2020Difficult to build a family after exposure to chemical weapons

People who have been exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) feel uncertain, decades after the exposure, about their survival and ability to build a family, a new study shows. Women are more severely affected than men.

30.10.2020Parasitology: Bringing the locals onboard

A new study examines local perceptions of Chagas disease in a region where the infectious agent is endemic. The results underline the need to take social and cultural factors into account in campaigns designed to curb infectious diseases.

30.10.2020High rate of symptomless COVID-19 infection among grocery store workers

Grocery store employees are likely to be at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection, with those in customer-facing roles 5 times as likely to test positive as their colleagues in other positions, a new study suggests.

29.10.2020Myocarditis linked to COVID-19 not as common as believed, study shows

A new study suggests myocarditis caused by COVID-19 may be a relatively rare occurrence.

29.10.2020Stronger treatments could cure Chagas disease

Researchers have found that a more intensive, less frequent drug regimen with currently available therapeutics could cure the infection that causes Chagas disease.

29.10.2020Comparing sensitivity of all genes to chemical exposure

An environmental health scientist has used an unprecedented objective approach to identify which molecular mechanisms in mammals are the most sensitive to chemical exposures.

29.10.2020Models show how COVID-19 cuts a neighborhood path

Researchers have created a new model of how the coronavirus can spread through a community. The model factors in network exposure -- whom one interacts with -- and demographics to simulate at a more detailed level both where and how quickly the coronavirus could spread through Seattle and 18 other major cities.

29.10.2020World's first agreed guidance for people with diabetes to exercise safely

An academic has helped draw up a landmark agreement amongst international experts, setting out the world's first standard guidance on how people with diabetes can use modern glucose monitoring devices to help them exercise safely. The guidance will be a crucial resource for healthcare professionals around the world, so they can help people with type 1 diabetes.

29.10.2020High-sugar diet can damage the gut, intensifying risk for colitis

Mice fed diets high in sugar developed worse colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and researchers examining their large intestines found more of the bacteria that can damage the gut's protective mucus layer.

29.10.2020Face mask aims to deactivate virus to protect others

Researchers have developed a face mask with an embedded antiviral layer that sanitizes the wearer's respiratory droplets to make them less infectious to others.

29.10.2020Is the COVID-19 pandemic affecting dengue virus case numbers?

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in dramatic changes to human mobility, which has the potential to change the transmission dynamics of other infectious diseases. Now, researchers have found that social distancing has led to a significant increase in dengue infections in Thailand but no change in dengue in Singapore or Malaysia.

29.10.2020A groundbreaking genetic screening tool for human organoids

Researchers have developed CRISPR-LICHT, a revolutionary technology that allows genetic screens in human tissues such as brain organoids. By applying the novel technology to brain organoids, the ER-stress pathway was identified to play a major role in regulating the size of the human brain.

29.10.2020Study identifies pitfall for correcting mutations in human embryos with CRISPR

The most detailed analysis to date of CRISPR genome editing in human embryos finds a significant risk of chromosomal abnormalities when using the technique at earliest stage of human development.

29.10.2020Early results from DETECT study suggest fitness trackers can predict COVID-19 infections

Examining data from the first six weeks of their landmark DETECT study, scientists see encouraging signs that wearable fitness devices can improve public health efforts to control COVID-19.

29.10.2020Molecular compass for cell orientation

Plants have veins that transport nutrients through their body. These veins are highly organized. The hormone auxin travels directionally from cell-to-cell and provides cells with positional information, coordinating them during vein formation and regeneration. Scientists now discovered how cells translate auxin signals into forming a complex system of veins. This phenomenon also applies to wound healing and might lead to more mechanically resistant plants and further agricultural implications.

29.10.2020Muscle pain and energy-rich blood: Cholesterol medicine affects the organs differently

Contrary to expectation, treatment with statins has a different effect on blood cells than on muscle cells, a new study reveals. Today, statins are mainly used in the treatment of elevated cholesterol, but the new results may help design drugs for a number of conditions.

29.10.2020SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins disrupt the blood-brain barrier, new research shows

New research shows that the spike proteins that extrude from SARS-CoV-2 promote inflammatory responses on the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier. The study shows that SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins can cause this barrier to become 'leaky,' potentially disrupting the delicate neural networks within the brain.

29.10.2020More infections than reported: New study demonstrates importance of large-scale SARS-CoV-2 antibody screenings

A new study indicates a six-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate among children in Bavaria, Germany, than reported cases. This highlights the value of population-based antibody screenings for pandemic monitoring. The study also describes a novel approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 with high accuracy.

29.10.2020Denisovan DNA in the genome of early East Asians

Researchers analyzed the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date and show that the 34,000-year-old woman inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations. This individual and a 40,000-year-old individual from China also carried DNA from Denisovans, an extinct form of hominins that inhabited Asia before modern humans arrived.

29.10.2020Positive outlook predicts less memory decline

A new study finds that people who feel enthusiastic and cheerful -- what psychologists call 'positive affect' -- are less likely to experience memory decline as they age. This result adds to a growing body of research on positive affect's role in healthy aging.

29.10.2020PFAS: These 'forever chemicals' are highly toxic, under-studied, and largely unregulated

Per-/poly-fluroalkyl substances, or PFAS, are everywhere. They are used in firefighting foam, car wax, and even fast-food wrappers. They're one of the most toxic substances ever identified -- harmful at concentrations in the parts per trillion -- yet very little is known about them.

29.10.2020Genomic study reveals role for hypothalamus in inflammatory bowel disease

Using sophisticated 3D genomic mapping and integrating with public data resulting from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), researchers have found significant genetic correlations between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and stress and depression.

29.10.2020How the immune system deals with the gut's plethora of microbes

New research suggests that our immune system may play an active role in shaping the digestive-tract flora, which is tightly linked to health and disease.

29.10.2020Priming the immune system to attack cancer

New research showed how immune 'training' transforms innate immune cells to target tumors. The findings could inform new approaches to cancer immunotherapy or even strategies for preventing tumor growth.

29.10.2020How people would choose who gets scarce COVID-19 treatment

As COVID-19 cases begin climbing again in the United States, the possibility arises of a grim moral dilemma: Which patients should be prioritized if medical resources are scarce? A study of more than 5,000 people in 11 countries found that people worldwide gave two characteristics the most weight when they made their decision: age and probability of survival.

29.10.2020Positive student-teacher relationships benefit students' long-term health, study finds

Teens who have good, supportive relationships with their teachers enjoy better health as adults, according to new research. Perhaps surprisingly, although friendships are important to adolescents, the study did not find the same link between good peer relationships and students' health in adulthood.

29.10.2020Remdesivir for COVID-19: FDA approved but still unproven

In a review of evidence from the most reliable data from randomized trials to find likely small-to-moderate effects of remdesivir, researchers say that totality of evidence compiled before the WHO trial results justifies compassionate use of remdesivir for severely ill patients. A smaller trial in China showed significantly decreased mean recovery time but no suggestion of a mortality benefit. ACTT-1 found the same mean recovery time and a suggestion of a mortality benefit that didn't achieve statistical significance.

29.10.2020Mouse studies link some autism to brain cells that guide sociability and platonic love

Researchers report that new experiments with genetically engineered mice have found clear connections among a range of autism types and abnormalities in brain cells whose chemical output forges platonic feelings of love and sociability.

29.10.2020Cancer-fighting gene restrains 'jumping genes'

About half of all tumors have mutations of the gene p53, normally responsible for warding off cancer. Now scientists have discovered a new role for p53 in its fight against tumors: preventing retrotransposons, or 'jumping genes,' from hopping around the human genome. In cells with missing or mutated p53, the team found, retrotransposons move and multiply more than usual. The finding could lead to new ways of detecting or treating cancers with p53 mutations.

29.10.2020Brainstem neurons control both behavior and misbehavior

A recent study reveals how gene control mechanisms define the identity of developing neurons in the brainstem. The researchers also showed that a failure in differentiation of the brainstem neurons leads to behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity and attention deficit.

29.10.2020Nucleus accumbens recruited by cocaine, sugar are different

In a study using genetically modified mice, researchers found that the nucleus accumbens recruited by cocaine use are largely distinct from nucleus accumbens recruited by sucrose, or table sugar. Because they are separate, this poses the possibility that drug use can be addressed without affecting biologically adaptive seeking of reward.

29.10.2020Black soldier fly larvae as protein alternative for hungry humans

Black soldier fly larvae contains more zinc and iron than lean meat and its calcium content is higher than milk. Less than half a hectare of black soldier fly larvae can produce more protein than cattle grazing on around 1200 hectares, or 52 hectares of soybeans. New research has identified the barriers for introducing fly protein into Western human diets as a sustainable, healthy alternative to both meat and plant proteins.

29.10.2020Study measures effectiveness of different face mask materials when coughing

Researchers have tested everything from t-shirts and socks to jeans and vacuum bags to determine what type of mask material is most effective at trapping the ultrafine particles which may contain viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus which causes COVID-19.

29.10.2020New estimates of breast cancer risks associated with HRT

A new study provides new estimates of the increased risks of breast cancer associated with use of different hormone replacement therapy (HRT) preparations.

28.10.2020Study helps explain why motivation to learn declines with age

Neuroscientists have identified a brain circuit critical for learning to make decisions that require evaluating the cost or reward of an action. They showed this circuit is negatively affected by aging and in Huntington's disease.

28.10.2020Liquid nanofoam: A game changer for future football helmets

A liquid nanofoam liner undergoing testing could prolong the safe use of football helmets, says a researcher.

28.10.2020A drop in temperature

In the nearly two centuries since 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37.0 degrees Celsius) was established as the standard 'normal' body temperature, it has been used as the measure by which fevers have been assessed. Over time, however, lower body temperatures have been widely reported in healthy adults -- for example, in recent studies in the UK and the US. Researchers have now found a similar decrease among the Tsimane, an indigenous population of forager-horticulturists in the Bolivian Amazon.

28.10.2020Learning the language of sugars

We're told not to eat too much sugar, but in reality, all of our cells are covered in sugar molecules called glycans. Glycans regulate many important processes including infection by bacteria and viruses, but little is known about them because their structures are highly complex. A team has now created a new suite of deep learning and bioinformatics tools that enable the comprehensive study of glycan sequences, providing insights into their functions and improving our understanding of infectious diseases.

28.10.2020Social isolation puts women at higher risk of hypertension

Researchers are discovering that social isolation affects the health of men and women in different ways -- including placing women at higher risk of high blood pressure.

28.10.2020Younger knee replacement patients more likely to require reoperation

Knee replacement surgery, also known as total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is increasing among patients 65 and younger. One study projects a potential 183% increase in the number of TKA and revision TKA surgeries by the year 2030 in that age group, raising concerns about poorer clinical outcomes, lower patient satisfaction and diminished joint survival compared to an older patient population.

28.10.2020Mechanics of mucus in cystic fibrosis patients

New research examines the properties of the mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the role it plays in a pathogens' ability to survive. The new information could have important implications for CF treatment.

28.10.2020A patch that could help heal broken hearts

According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide in recent years. During a heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), a blocked artery and the resulting oxygen deprivation cause massive cardiac cell death, blood vessel impairment and inflammation. Now, researchers have developed a cardiac patch with tiny engineered blood vessels that improved recovery from MI in rats and pigs.

28.10.2020Paracetamol poisonings up

In 2003, the painkiller paracetamol became available in Switzerland in tablets with a higher dose of the active ingredient. This correlates with an increase in cases of paracetamol poisoning in the country, as a data analysis shows.

28.10.2020Genetic analysis system yields new insights into bacterial pneumonia

A team of infectious disease researchers has developed a new method to identify virulence genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. Using this technique in a mouse model of pneumonia, they were able to gain new insights into the progression of the disease and its interaction with the flu virus.

28.10.2020Small brain device proves big game changer for severely paralysed patients

A tiny device the size of a small paperclip has been shown to help patients with upper limb paralysis to text, email and even shop online in the first human trial.

28.10.2020An artificial cell on a chip

Researchers have developed a precisely controllable system for mimicking biochemical reaction cascades in cells. Using microfluidic technology, they produce miniature polymeric reaction containers equipped with the desired properties. This 'cell on a chip' is useful not only for studying processes in cells, but also for the development of new synthetic pathways for chemical applications or for biological active substances in medicine.

 
Page visits: 8339