Gene therapy

PNA gene silencing

Living cells, where only some parts are visible, due to differential fluorescence staining: Nuclei (blue), lysosomes (red), PNA molecules (green). What appear yellow is the overlap of red and green, which is when PNA molecules reside in the lysosomes. (Picture by Sigurd Bøe)

Cancer covers a broad spectrum of diseases, in every tissue of the body. Tissues are composed of cells, which normally grow slowly, under the tight control of a network of regulatory genes. The slow accumulation of activating mutations in growth genes, and inactivating mutations in suppressor genes, eventually allows a cell to grow out of control. Relapse is due to the development of resistant cells, rather than the escape of sensitive cells, suggesting the need for new approaches to treatment of the disease.