A new publication from a group member

Congratulations to Anna Winge-Main, PhD student in our unit and MD at the Department of Oncology (OUS), who has published a case report in the British Medical Journal (Case Reports):


Silent, isolated ACTH deficiency in malignant melanoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors

Ansgar Heck and Anna K Winge-Main


Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has drastically improved the prognosis for melanoma patients, but immune-mediated adverse events can occur in any organ, including the pituitary. In ICI-induced hypophysitis, lymphocytic infiltration and hypersensitivity reactions cause headache and pituitary deficiency. Most cases with ICI-induced hypophysitis develop central adrenal insufficiency. Here, we describe three patients treated with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (ipilimumab) for metastatic malignant melanoma: case 1 was asymptomatic when hypocortisolism was suspected; case 2 had symptoms of hypocortisolism and suspected severe systemic infection; case 3 had unspecific fatigue. In all cases, routine cortisol measurements and clinical suspicion (cases 2 and 3) led to the diagnosis of adrenocortical hormone (ACTH) deficiency and thereby central adrenal insufficiency. Undiagnosed and untreated, central adrenal insufficiency results in adrenal crisis. In patients treated with ICI, particularly, ipilimumab, hypophysitis and ACTH deficiency must be considered if morning cortisol is low or unspecific clinical symptoms of hypocortisolism are present.


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