Sara Salehi Hammerstad

  • Senior consultant, Professor in Endocrinology; MD, PhD
  • +47 482 53 500

UiO home page

Oslo University Hospital, Endocrinology Dep. (ESF)
Mailing address: Pb 4959 Nydalen 4959 Oslo


  • Professor in Endocrinology 2023 UIO, Assoc. professor 2021-2023 UIO.
  • Senior consultant, Tyreoidea Seksjon, Endokrinology Dep. Aker, OUH Universitetssykehus 2022
  • One of the founders and (2009) Leader Norsk Thyroid Group ( 2021-DD)
  • Specialist in internal medicine and endocrinology (2006)
  • Dr- Med UiO 2013; Virus and autoimmune thyroid diseases
  • Post doc Mount Sinai Hospital 2012-2015 
  • Cand. med. Universite Claude Bernard Lyon France 1991, 


  • Medical students modul 3 and modul 8, Thyroid diseases and other endocrinology
  • Member of examination committee modul 3

Publications 2023

Dahll LK, Westbye AB, Vinorum K, Sejersted Y, Barøy T, Thorsby PM, Hammerstad SS (2023)
Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Untreated Adult Patients With Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Alpha
J Endocr Soc, 7 (8), bvad089
DOI 10.1210/jendso/bvad089, PubMed 37469961

Publications 2022

Bjerkreim BA, Hammerstad SS, Eriksen EF (2022)
Bone Turnover in Relation to Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone in Hypothyroid Patients on Thyroid Hormone Substitution Therapy
J Thyroid Res, 2022, 8950546
DOI 10.1155/2022/8950546, PubMed 36248357

Bjerkreim BA, Hammerstad SS, Gulseth HL, Berg TJ, Lee-Ødegård S, Eriksen EF (2022)
Thyroid Signaling Biomarkers in Female Symptomatic Hypothyroid Patients on Liothyronine versus Levothyroxine Monotherapy: A Randomized Crossover Trial
J Thyroid Res, 2022, 6423023
DOI 10.1155/2022/6423023, PubMed 35572853

Bjerkreim BA, Hammerstad SS, Gulseth HL, Berg TJ, Omdal LJ, Lee-Ødegård S, Eriksen EF (2022)
Effect of Liothyronine Treatment on Quality of Life in Female Hypothyroid Patients With Residual Symptoms on Levothyroxine Therapy: A Randomized Crossover Study
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 13, 816566
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2022.816566, PubMed 35273566

Weider T, Genoni A, Broccolo F, Paulsen TH, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Toniolo A, Hammerstad SS (2022)
High Prevalence of Common Human Viruses in Thyroid Tissue
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 13, 938633
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2022.938633, PubMed 35909527

Publications 2021

Bjerkreim BA, Hammerstad SS, Gulseth HL, Berg TJ, Lee-Ødegård S, Rangberg A, Jonassen CM, Budge H, Morris D, Law J, Symonds M, Eriksen EF (2021)
Effect of Liothyronine Treatment on Dermal Temperature and Activation of Brown Adipose Tissue in Female Hypothyroid Patients: A Randomized Crossover Study
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 12, 785175
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2021.785175, PubMed 34867829

Hammerstad SS, Celius EG, Husby H, Sørensen IM, Norheim IE (2021)
Management of Severe Graves' Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy Following Immune Reconstitution Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis
J Endocr Soc, 5 (6), bvab044
DOI 10.1210/jendso/bvab044, PubMed 34017934

Sletner L, Jenum AK, Qvigstad E, Hammerstad SS (2021)
Thyroid Function During Pregnancy in A Multiethnic Population in Norway
J Endocr Soc, 5 (7), bvab078
DOI 10.1210/jendso/bvab078, PubMed 34159284

Weider T, Richardson SJ, Morgan NG, Paulsen TH, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Hammerstad SS (2021)
HLA Class I Upregulation and Antiviral Immune Responses in Graves Disease
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 106 (4), e1763-e1774
DOI 10.1210/clinem/dgaa958, PubMed 33367784

Publications 2020

Bøhmer T, Bachtyari Z, Sommer C, Hammerstad SS (2020)
Auto regulatory capacity of the thyroid gland after numerous iodinated contrast media investigations
Scand J Clin Lab Invest, 80 (3), 191-195
DOI 10.1080/00365513.2019.1709658, PubMed 31990217

Hammerstad SS, Blackard JT, Lombardi A, Owen RP, Concepcion E, Yi Z, Zhang W, Tomer Y (2020)
Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Human Thyrocytes: Metabolic, Hormonal, and Immunological Implications
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 105 (4), 1157-68
DOI 10.1210/clinem/dgz241, PubMed 31784757

Weider T, Richardson SJ, Morgan NG, Paulsen TH, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Hammerstad SS (2020)
Upregulation of HLA Class I and Antiviral Tissue Responses in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Thyroid, 30 (3), 432-442
DOI 10.1089/thy.2019.0607, PubMed 31910110

Publications 2018

Lombardi A, Tsomos E, Hammerstad SS, Tomer Y (2018)
Interferon alpha: The key trigger of type 1 diabetes
J Autoimmun, 94, 7-15
DOI 10.1016/j.jaut.2018.08.003, PubMed 30115527

Publications 2017

Blackard JT, Kong L, Lombardi A, Homann D, Hammerstad SS, Tomer Y (2017)
A preliminary analysis of hepatitis C virus in pancreatic islet cells
Virol J, 14 (1), 237
DOI 10.1186/s12985-017-0905-3, PubMed 29258547

Hammerstad SS, Stefan M, Blackard J, Owen RP, Lee HJ, Concepcion E, Yi Z, Zhang W, Tomer Y (2017)
Hepatitis C Virus E2 Protein Induces Upregulation of IL-8 Pathways and Production of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Thyroid Cells
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 102 (2), 689-697
DOI 10.1210/jc.2016-3403, PubMed 27860532

Lambertini L, Saul SR, Copperman AB, Hammerstad SS, Yi Z, Zhang W, Tomer Y, Kase N (2017)
Intrauterine Reprogramming of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Evidence from a Pilot Study of Cord Blood Global Methylation Analysis
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 8, 352
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2017.00352, PubMed 29326659

Publications 2015

Hammerstad SS, Grock SF, Lee HJ, Hasham A, Sundaram N, Tomer Y (2015)
Diabetes and Hepatitis C: A Two-Way Association
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 6, 134
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2015.00134, PubMed 26441826

Lee HJ, Li CW, Hammerstad SS, Stefan M, Tomer Y (2015)
Immunogenetics of autoimmune thyroid diseases: A comprehensive review
J Autoimmun, 64, 82-90
DOI 10.1016/j.jaut.2015.07.009, PubMed 26235382

Tomer Y, Dolan LM, Kahaly G, Divers J, D'Agostino RB, Imperatore G, Dabelea D, Marcovina S, Black MH, Pihoker C, Hasham A, Hammerstad SS, Greenberg DA, Lotay V, Zhang W, Monti MC, Matheis N, SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (2015)
Genome wide identification of new genes and pathways in patients with both autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes
J Autoimmun, 60, 32-9
DOI 10.1016/j.jaut.2015.03.006, PubMed 25936594

Publications 2014

Brown RS, Lombardi A, Hasham A, Greenberg DA, Gordon J, Concepcion E, Hammerstad SS, Lotay V, Zhang W, Tomer Y (2014)
Genetic analysis in young-age-of-onset Graves' disease reveals new susceptibility loci
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 99 (7), E1387-91
DOI 10.1210/jc.2013-4358, PubMed 24684463

Hammerstad SS, Jahnsen FL, Tauriainen S, Hyöty H, Paulsen T, Norheim I, Dahl-Jørgensen K (2014)
Immunological changes and increased expression of myxovirus resistance protein a in thyroid tissue of patients with recent onset and untreated Graves' disease
Thyroid, 24 (3), 537-44
DOI 10.1089/thy.2013.0287, PubMed 24032645

Publications 2013

Hammerstad SS, Jahnsen FL, Tauriainen S, Hyöty H, Paulsen T, Norheim I, Dahl-Jørgensen K (2013)
Inflammation and increased myxovirus resistance protein A expression in thyroid tissue in the early stages of Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Thyroid, 23 (3), 334-41
DOI 10.1089/thy.2012.0264, PubMed 22998463

Hammerstad SS, Norheim I, Paulsen T, Amlie LM, Eriksen EF (2013)
Excessive decrease in serum magnesium after total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease is related to development of permanent hypocalcemia
World J Surg, 37 (2), 369-75
DOI 10.1007/s00268-012-1843-2, PubMed 23188529

Publications 2012

Hammerstad SS, Tauriainen S, Hyöty H, Paulsen T, Norheim I, Dahl-Jørgensen K (2012)
Detection of enterovirus in the thyroid tissue of patients with graves' disease
J Med Virol, 85 (3), 512-8
DOI 10.1002/jmv.23476, PubMed 23280563

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